External Links : Links related to Holy Roman Empire Military History |
For links on general military history sources, go to History of Warfare Main Page
From the Thirty Years' War to Prince Eugene of Savoy, from Austrian Museum of Military History, in English
Kriege der Neuzeit (Wars of the Modern Era), index, in German
Printed Reference |
Andrea van Dülmen, Deutsche Geschichte in Daten : Band 1 : Von den Anfängen bis 1770 (Timeline of German History, Vol.1 : From the Origins until 1770), München : dtv 1979
1648-1806 ..... go to narrative history of the Empire
Introductory Notes : The Holy Roman Empire, in the 17th and 18th centuries, much as the UN today, had no armed forces of her own, but depended on states within the Empire to contribute military forces. The Holy Roman Empire did, however, designate certain fortresses as Imperial; in the 18th century they were usually garrisoned by Austrian or Prussian troops.
1663-1664 Imperial War against Turks
Following unrest in Transylvania, the Ottoman Empire declared war on the Emperor; Ottoman forces took Neuhäusel fortress Sept. 26th. The invaders were supported by the Hungarian nobility and by the French. A Reichstag was convened at Regensburg, which was not dissolved until 1806 (EVERLASTING REICHSTAG).Brandenburg, Saxony, Bavaria, and the (French-orchestrated) Confederation of the Rhine sent troop contingents to support the Emperor. On August 1st 1664, the Imperial troops under RAIMUND VON MONTECUCCOLI decisively defeated the Ottomans at St. Gotthard on the Raab; on August 10th 1664 peace was signed at Varvar. The treaty was not favourable for Austria, as French diplomacy was undermining Imperial unity.
Türkisch-Österreichischer Krieg (Turkish-Austrian War, 1663-1664), from Kriege der Neuzeit, in German
1674-1679 Imperial War against France
In 1672, French King Louis XIV., in alliance with England, Sweden, Cologne and Münster, had declared war on the Dutch Republic and invaded the latter. On May 24th 1674, the Reichstag in Regensburg, against the votes of Hannover and Bavaria, declared Imperial war against France. Bonn was retaken; Münster and Cologne were compelled to sign a peace treaty with the Netherlands. The war between Sweden and Brandenburg (1675-1679) then forced a major contingent of Imperial forces to be withdrawn from the Rhine. Meanwhile, Imperial troops temporarily held part of the Alsace (1675). Trier was liberated in 1675, Philippsburg in 1676. An Imperial law prohibited the import of French luxury products (1676). Peace negotiations held at Nijmegen see the Emperor isolated, as England and the Dutch Republic conclude early treaties. The Emperor thus was caused to sign an unfavourable peace treaty.
1675-1679 War against Sweden
Sweden, a traditional French ally, in 1675 invaded Brandenburg, in order to relieve pressure the French armies felt on the Rhine front. In the BATTLE OF FEHRBELLIN (June 28th 1675), Brandenburgian and Saxon troops defeated the Swedes; in alliance with the Danes, Swedish Pomerania including Stettin (1678), Stralsund (1678) and Greifswald were taken; the Brandenburgers even attacked the Swedes at Riga. However, Saxony turned sides; Brandenburg, frustrated by the lack of imperial support, was to give up most of her gains at the negotiation table.
1683-1699 War against the Ottoman Empire
With an Ottoman army laying siege to Vienna, Imperial contingents formed the bulk of the army, which, under the command of Polish King Jan Sobieski defeated the Ottomans in the BATTLE OF KAHLENBERG (Sept. 12th) and, which under Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered Hungary and Transylvania. Gran was taken Oct. 17th 1683, all of Hungary and Transylvania by 1687, Belgrade in 1688, the Turks were defeated at Nis on Sept. 24th 1689. The war was ended by the TREATY OF KARLOWITZ in 1699. The war was supported by most of Germany's major princes and estates, but not by all.
Given the Ottoman threat, the Reichstag of 1684 factually recognized French annexations of Reich territory known as REUNIONs.
Der Türkenkrieg 1683-1699 (The Turkish War, 1683-1699), from Kriege der Neuzeit, in German
1689-1697 Imperial War against France
The Reichstag assembled in Regensburg in 1689 declared an Imperial War against France (Febr. 15th), after French troops had invaded Imperial territory. Mainz and Bonn were retaken; the French responded by devastating the contested left bank of the Rhine. In 1690 the unity of the princes of the Empire, created by the French threat, permitted Emperor Leopold I. to have his son and successor Joseph I. elected Emperor. In 1691, the Duke of Hannover, by threatening to break with Imperial solidarity and ally with France, gained a concession from the Emperor, the Duke of Hannover being elevated to become the 9th elector. In 1693 a French army under Marshal de Lorges devastated Württemberg and the Palatinate; Heidelberg suffered severely. In 1697 peace negotiations were held in Nijmegen; the Empire failed to regain the Alsace; Strassburg remained French.
Der Neunjährige Krieg (The Nine Years War, 1683-1699), from Kriege der Neuzeit, in German
Pfalziske Arvefølgekrig 1688-1697 (Palatine War of Succession), from Historiske Slag, in Danish
War of the Grand Alliance, 1689-1697, from Simonides
1702-1714 Imperial War against France
The WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION had begun in 1701. The Reichstag declared Imperial War against France on Sept. 30th in 1702 (Regensburg); the Emperor already had joined the GRAND ALLIANCE on Sept. 7th 1701, which shortly after had been joined by Hannover, Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Pfalz-Neuburg, Mainz, Trier, Brandenburg-Preussen, Wuuml;rzburg, the Frankfurt Association, Hessen-Kassel. Saxony had dispatched a troop contingent without formally joining.
Brandenburg was rewarded for her participation by the elevation of her Duke to KING IN PRUSSIA (1701); Brandenburg-Prussia's acquisition of the counties of Moers and Lingen (1702) and Tecklenburg (1707) was uncontested.
French troops linked up with ally Bavaria in 1703; in 1704 the Franco-Bavarian troops suffered a defeat in the BATTLE OF SCHELLENBERG (July 2nd); Bavaria was occupied and placed under Austrian administration. Emperor Leopold I. died in 1705; a revolt erupted in Bavaria, against the Austrian administration; it was suppressed the same year. In 1706 the Imperial ban (REICHSACHT) was proclaimed against the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne (for siding with France). Meanwhile, Swedish successes in the simultaneous GREAT NORTHERN WAR - Charles XII. in 1706 had forced Saxony to sign the humiliating PEACE OF ALTRANSTÄDT, caused Emperor Joseph I. to sign the ALTRANSTäDT CONVENTION, guaranteeing the protestant confession of the Silesians. Peace negotiations with France began in 1709, but were not concluded until 1714 (TREATY OF RASTATT, with the Emperor, (TREATY OF BADEN / AARGAU, with the Empire).
War of Spanish Succession, from Military History Encyclopedia on the Web
Spanske Arvefølgekrig 1701-1714 (War of Spanish Succession), from Historiske Slag, in Danish
1716-1718 War against the Ottoman Empire
In 1716 the Ottomans, after having retaken Morea from Venice in 1714, reopened war against the Empire. The Imperial forces under the command of PRINCE EUGENE OF SAVOY defeated the Ottoman forces at Peterwardein (Aug. 5th) and Temesvar (Oct. 13th 1716). The Banat, northern Serbia and Vallachia were occupied. In August 1717 the fortress of Belgrade was taken; on July 21st 1718 the TREATY OF PASSAROWITZ was signed, in which the Ottoman Empire ceded the Banat, Serbia, a strip of territory in Northern Bosnia and Little Vallachia to Austria.
Der Österreichisch-Venezianische Türkenkrieg (The Austro-Venetian Turkish War, 1714-1718), from Kriege der Neuzeit, in German
1734-1735 Imperial War against France
The WAR OF POLISH SUCCESSION had begun in 1733. French forces, unable to support the French claimant to the Polish throne in Poland, pressed on the Rhine and on northern Italy. The Reichstag declared an Imperial War against France in January 1734; in July, Philippsburg fell to the French. The Wittelsbach statelets (Bavaria, the princebishoprics ruled by Wittelsbach bishops) remained neutral. A preliminary peace treaty, between Austria and France, was signed at Vienna Oct. 3rd 1735, a definitive treaty Nov. 18th.
Der Polnische Thronfolgekrieg (The Polish War of Succession, 1733-1738), from Kriege der Neuzeit, in German
War of Polish Succession, from Military History Encyclopedia on the Web
Polske Arvefølgekrig 1733-1735 (War of Polish Succession), from Historiske Slag, in Danish
1757-1763 Imperial War against Prussia
The SEVEN YEARS WAR had begun in 1756, Prussia facing the allied forces of Austria, Russia, France and Sweden. In January 1757 the majority of the Reichstag colleges (without Hannover, Hessen-Kassel, Braunschweig, Sachsen-Gotha) decided Imperial Execution against Prussia. In the BATTLE OF ROSSBACH (Nov. 5th 1757), the Prussian army not only defeated the French, but also the Reich troops with had fought at the side of the latter. In 1758 the English-Hannoverian army commanded by FERDINAND VOn BRAUNSCHWEIG (allied with Prussia) defeated the French and occupied Münster). In 1759 Reich troops invaded Saxony and expelled the Prussian occupants. The war was decided by the strange course Russian foreign policy took after the death of Czarina Ellisabeth in 1762; the peace treaty of 1763 confirmed the status quo ante. The Empire had declared neutrality in the war against Prussia on February 6th, before Austria and Prussia signed peace in the TREATY OF HUBERTUSBURG (Feb. 15th 1763).
Der Siebenjaehrige Krieg (The Seven Years' War, 1756-1763), from Kriege der Neuzeit , in German
Seven Years War, from Military History Encyclopedia on the Web
Preussiske Syvårskrig 1756-1763 (Prussia's Seven Years War), from Historiske Slag, in Danish
1792-1797 First War of the Coalition, against Revolutionary France