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Syria Israel
First posted on July 5th 2002, last revised on February 14th 2009

for the History prior to 1917, see also Ottoman Syria

Timeline : Lebanon
Historical Atlas, Lebanon Page

Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia
Encyclopedia of the Orient : Lebanon
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Lebanon
CIA World Factbook, click Lebanon
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; List of Lebanon-related Topics, from Wikipedia
Category : Lebanon, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Liban, from Wikipedia French edition
Links, on History from Virtual Library History
Virtual Library Labour History : Lebanon
Category : History of Lebanon from Wikipedia; Categorie : Histoire du Liban, from Wikipedia French edition
Organizations Service des Musees, Leban
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from Timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History from Wikipedia; from Wikipedia French edition; from Encyclopedie Française; from Speedy Look
Kamal Salibi, How it all began - A concise history of Lebanon posted by Al Mashriq
Cedarland, many files on the History of Lebanon
Lebanon History, from Global Security
Politics Category : Politics of Lebanon, from Wikipedia, Article Politics of Lebanon, from Wikipedia
Political Resources on the Net : Lebanon; Governments on the WWW : Lebanon; Lebanon Political Parties, from LebWeb
Lebanon, from Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey (1980)
Daniel Corstange, Lebanon : The Party System from 1963 to 2000
Lebanon Profile, from International Crisis Group
Military Wars of Lebanon, 1919-1999, from ACED
Lebanon 1982-1984, from Britain's Small Wars
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Lebanon, from ODM
History of the Lebanese Army
CASCON Case LEB : Lebanon 1957-1958, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
CASCON Case LBN : Lebanon Civil War 1975-1990, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
G.S. Solley, The Israeli Experience in Lebanon 1982-1985 (1987), from Global Security
Lebanese Air Force, from Global Security
Lebanon Civil War (1975-1991), from Global Security
Guerre Civile Libanaise, from Encyclopedie Française, in French; War of Lebanon, from Speedy Look
Bombardements 2005 de Liban, from Encyclopedie Française, in French
Aude Signoles, Case Studies : Sabra and Chatila, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Economy & Finances Global Currency History : Lebanon
Article : Economy of Lebanon, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Lebanon, from Wikipedia
The Beirut Exchange : a Short History, from lebanon.com, scroll down
Global Integrity : Lebanon 2006, Lebanon 2007
History of Banque du Liban, of Banque du Liban et d'Outre-Mer
Historical Development of the Lebanese Pound, from
Cedar Coins
Ethnography Languages of Lebanon (5), from Ethnologue
Worldwide Refugee Information : Lebanon, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Forced Migration Online Research Guides : Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon
Palestinians in Lebanon. Towards Integration or Conflict ? by Simon Haddad
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Lebanon - Druze, Maronite Christians, Palestinians, Shiis, Sunnis
Lebanon, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Lebanon
Khater, Akram Fouad. Inventing Home: Emigration, Gender, and the Middle Class in Lebanon, 1870-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Lebanon, pp.3297-3322 in vol.5A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion History of the Maronites, from Bkerke, click The Maronites; Article Maronite Church, from Wikipedia
Article Druze, from Wikipedia
Article Armenians in Lebanon, from Wikipedia
Article Roman Catholicism in Lebanon, from Catholic Hierarchy
Article Islam in Lebanon, from Wikipedia
International Religious Freedom Report 2003 : Lebanon, from U.S. Department of State
Lebanon, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Lebanon - Religious Sects, from Global Security
History of the Jews in Lebanon, from Speedy Look; from Wikipedia
History of Cities History of Beirut, from Wikipedia, from Chat Beirut
History of Tripoli, from Wikipedia
History of Sidon, from Wikipedia
History of Baalbek, from Wikipedia
History of the Village of Ain Zalta
History of Regions Provinces of Lebanon, Counties of Lebanon, from www.statoids.com
Article Beqaa Valley, from Wikipedia
Article Chouf District, from Wikipedia
Article Southern Lebanon, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of American University of Beirut
Article Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation, from Wikipedia
Article Rail Transport in Lebanon, from Wikipedia; from Zimbio
History of Beirut Rafik Hariri International Airport; from Wikipedia; Lebanon, from Airline History
Structurae : Lebanon; search Lighthouse Explorer for Lebanon
Culture Lebanon Cultural Profile, from Cultural Profiles
Biographies Famous Lebanese, from Cedarseed
List of Lebanese People, from Wikipedia
Others History of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut
Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Lebanon
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Lebanon
Disaster History by Country : Lebanon, from Relief Web
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Article Lebanon at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
The First Arabic Printing Press in Lebanon, from 2009 Letters
Akarli, Engin. The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Angela Joy Moss, Litani River and Israel-Lebanon, ICE Case Studies 1997; Ben Kasoff, Cedars of Lebanon, Babylon and Conflict, ICE Case Studies 1997; Lebanon Civil War and Waste Dumping, ICE Case Studies 1998; I. Debbas, Lebanon and Landmines, ICE Case Studies 2003; A. Shevchov, Environmental Implications of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon Conflict, ICE Case Studies 2007

Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); Regnal Chronologies : Lebanon
from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Lebanon, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassadors to Lebanon, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Lebanon, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Beirut (Libann), from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Administration of Statistics, Lebanon
Population Figures from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Lebanon, from City Population
Election Results Election Results, from Psephos (since 2000), from IFES Election Guide (2000), from Elections and Electoral Systems, scroll down for Lebanon
Newspapers The Daily Star, Beirut-based English language newspaper; Lebanon News
links from World Newspapers
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Lebanon Photos : Historical Photos of Lebanon from the 1890s to 1910 and more
Systematic Collections
Posters posted at American Univ. Beirut, 1960es to 1980es, from AUB
Accidental Collections Nadini, Old Lebanon (rare pictures)
Oriental Collections
Items on Lebanon
AGSL Digital Photo Archive : Asia and Middle East
Universal Collections
Items on Lebanon
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
License Plates, from License Plates around the World, from Francoplaque
Passport, from World Passports, scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Lebanon
Document Collections The History of Lebanon, from World History Archives
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Lebanon, from ILO, 44 docs. since 1948
Information by Country : Lebanon, from U.S. Committee for Refugees, 7 reports 1998-2000
Internet Law Library : Lebanon
Lebanon Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Lebanon, from United States Institute of Peace
Search Hansard for Lebanon
Search CIA Released Documents for Lebanon
Lebanon, pp.562-579 in vol.9 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : Lebanon : Directorate of Geographic Affairs (DAG), Beyrouth
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Lebanon
Historical and Political Maps of Arabia, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Lebanon Maps, PCL, UTexas
PBS, Global Connections : The Middle East : Maps
Mohammad al Kurbi Collection of Maps and Prints
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Arabia
Lebanon, hindsight
Lebanon, contemporary Arabia 1875, 1904, 1906, 1922, 1930, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
Map : Persian Gulf 1906, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries Article Lebanon, Beirut, Maronites, Sidon, Tyre, Baalbek, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912 edition
Articles Lebanon, Beirut, Maronites, Druses, Baalbek, Tripoli, Sidon (Saida), Tyre (Tyrus), from EB 1911
Articles Beirut, Tyre, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Articles Libanon, Beirut, Tarabulus (Tripoli), Baalbek, Saida, Tyros, Maroniten, Drusen, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892 edition, in German
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Said, posted by DTBSWS
Archives, Musea, Libraries Centre des Archives Nationales, Liban
AP Archive - Lebanon
Libraries in Lebanon, from LibDex
Museums, from Lebanese Ministry of Tourism; from LebWeb; Category Museums in Lebanon, from Wikipedia
Showcaves : Lebanon
National Symbols Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from national-anthems.net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Lebanon, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, by Michel Prieur
Coin Catalog of Lebanon, from Numismaticon; Lebanon Coins, from World Coin Gallery

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Lebanon survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Bibliography, Library of Congress Country Studies : Lebanon
Bibliografie Liban, from Clio Voyages Culturels
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies UNDP in Lebanon : Bibliography
Joint Forces Staff College, Lebanon War 2006-2008 Bibliography
Online Books on the History of Lebanese Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Lebanon Bibliography, from Terrorism and Political Violence, an International Bibliography
serial publications
general bibliographies
Lebanon entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrang?es traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Schnurrer/Chauvin, Bibliographie des ouvrages arabes ou relatifs aux Arabes: publies dans l'Europe chretienne de 1810 a 1885 vol.3, vol.4, vol.5, vol.6, vol.7, vol.9, vol.10, vol.11, vol.12, 1892-1922, IA
booksellers Books, Videos, DVDs on Lebanon, from eShop Lebanon
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Lebanon
Online Journals full text online Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterranee 1966-2008, Persee
Syria. Archeologie, Art et histoire 1920-2005, Persee
Table of Contents
On the Middle East Ritchie Ovendale, The Longman Companion to the Middle East since 1914, London etc.: Longman 1994 [G]
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.22, pp.889-901 Article Lebanon. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.22
Kamal Salibi, A House of Many Mansions, The History of Lebanon reconsidered, Berkeley : Univ. of California Press 1988, KMLA Lib.Sign. 956.92 S165h
Ethnic, Religious Communities Kais M. Firro, A History of the Druzes, Handbuch der Orientalistik (Handbook of Oriental Studies), supplemental volume no.9, Leiden : Brill 1992 [G]
B.H. Springett, Secret Sects Of Syria And The Lebanon (1922), posted on Internet Archive
G.W. Chasseaud, The Druses of the Lebanon: Their Manners, Customs, and History (1855), posted on Internet Arcdhive
Specific Periods Chapter 5 : The Arab Struggle for Independence, pp.70-91; 6 : The Second World War, pp.92-104, 7 : Post-War Unsettlement, pp.105-113, in : Peter Mansfield, The Ottoman Empire and its Successors, London : MacMillan (1973) 1976 [G]
W.B. Fleming, The History of Ture (1915), posted on Internet Archive
F.C. Eiselen, Sidon : a study in oriental history (1907), posted on Internet Archive
Historical Dictionaries
Yearbooks Article : Syria and Lebanon, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1945 pp.680-681, 1946 pp.718-719, 1947 pp.736-737, 1948 pp.710-711 [G]
Article : Lebanon, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1944 p.399, 1949 p.388, 1950 pp.410-411, 1951 pp.419-420, 1952 p.420, 1953 p.416, 1954 pp.419-421, 1955 p.463, 1956 p.401, 1957 p.463, 1958 pp.402-403, 1959 pp.398-400, 1960 p.393, 1961 p.399, 1962 pp.398-399, 1963 p.515, 1964 pp.503-504, 1965 p.485, 1966 p.460, 1967 pp.475-476, 1968 p.474, 1969 pp.461-462, 1970 pp.464-465, 1971 p.447, 1972 p.414, 1973 pp. 411-412, 1974 p.412, 1975 pp.436-437, 1976 pp.460-461, 1977 pp.455-456, 1978 pp.492-493, 1979 pp.485-486, 1980 pp.487-488, 1981 pp.489-490, 1982 pp.489-490, 1983 pp.481-482, 1984 pp.481-483, 1985 pp.491-492, 722, 1986 pp.486-487, 720, 1987 pp.454-456, 688, 1988 pp.414-415, 640, 1989 pp.414-415, 641, 1990 pp.431-432, 656, 1991 pp.411-412, 640, 1992 pp.386, 640, 1993 pp. 388-389, 650, 1994 pp. 387-388, 651, 1995 pp.437, 651, 1996 pp.434-435, 651, 1997 pp.444-445, 649, 2002 pp.456-457, 655 [G]
Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Article : Syria and Lebanon, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1924 pp.895-898, 1925 pp.907-909, 1926 pp.880-883, 1928 pp.893-897, 1929 pp.881-885, 1932 pp.883-888, 1937 pp.923-928, 1943 pp.910-914 [G]
Article : Lebanon, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1122-1126, 1975-1976 pp.1123-1126, 1976-1977 pp.1119-1123, 1978-1979 pp.774-778, 1979-1980 pp.778-782, 1980-1981 pp.781-785, 1981-1982 pp.784-788, 1983-1984 pp.778-782, 1984-1985 pp.780-784, 1985-1986 pp.783-787, 1986-1987 pp.783-787, 1987-1988 pp.787-791, 1988-1989 pp.789-793, 1989-1990 pp.798-802, 1990-1991 pp.799-803, 1991-1992 pp.800-804, 1992-1993 pp.880-884, 1993-1994 pp.874-878, 1994-1995 pp.868-872, 1995-1996 pp.865-868, 1996-1997 pp.814-817, 1997-1998 pp.826-830, 1998-1999 pp.886-890, 2000 pp.1012-1016, 2001 pp.988-992, 2002 pp.1030-1034, 2003 pp.1032-1036, 2004 pp.1038-1042, 2005 pp.1044-1048, 2006 pp.1042-1047 [G]
Article : Lebanon, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.184-185, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.184-185, 4th ed. 1984 pp.184-185 [G]
Entry : Travel Warnings - Lebanon, pp.535-538 in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : Lebanon (Lebanese Republic), Cabinet, p.59; Background Notes, pp.805-812, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Article : Lebanon, in : Americana Annual 1944 p.395, 1945 p.427, 1946 pp.444-445, 1947 p.408, 1957 pp.451-453, 1961 pp.424-425, 1962 pp.433-434, 1963 pp.390-391, 1964 pp.387-388, 1965 p.407, 1967 pp.410-411, 1968 pp.407-408, 1969 pp.417-418, 1970 p.415, 1971 p.406, 1972 p.405, 1973 p.405, 1974 p.342, 1976 p.341, 1988 pp.322-324, 1989 pp.326-328, 1990 pp.317-320, 1992 pp.326-327, 1993 pp.324-325, 1994 pp.325-326, 1998 p.318, 2006 pp.232-233 [G]
Entry : Lebanon, pp.648-649 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
The Arab World pp.541-553, in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942
Article : Lebanon, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1976 pp.554-558 (Michael Nabti), 1980 pp.420-423 (M.N.) [G]

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