History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

First posted September 16th 2008, last revised on April 13th 2010

Western Thrace until 1913 formed part of the Vilayet of Edirne (Adrianople) which in turn formed part of the Ottoman Empire (Rumelia). In 1913 briefly independent as the Republic of Gümüljina, it then was alloocated to Bulgaria by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), placed under an Entente mandate entrusted to Greece in 1919 (Treaty of Neuilly), annexed by Greece in 1920. The Treaty of Lausanne (1923) ended the Graeco-Turkish War; in this treaty, Greece recognized the rights of the Muslim population of Western Thrace.
Since 1923, the Muslim population of the region has seen a decline due to immigration to Turkey, and the immigration of Greek Orthodox Christians. The region's Sephardic Jewish community largely was destroyed during the Holocaust.

Historical Encyclopedia Entries on the Pomaks (1885-1915)

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Country Profiles Current from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries click here
Pomak Dictionary, by N. Kokkas
Accounts of History Article : Western Thrace : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Republic of Gümüljina, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Article : Western Thrace : Economy, from Wikipedia
Ethnography Languages of Greece (14), from Ethnologue; Minority Languages by State, from Euromosaic, for Greece files on Albanian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Turkish, Walachian
The Muslim Minority of Greek Thrace, from HR Net; The Situation of the Roma in Greece, by Cia Rinne
Minorities in Greece, from Greek Helsinki Group; click for Pomaks
Erik-Jan Zürcher, Greek and Turkish Refugees and Deportees 1912-1924, posted by Leiden Project (2003)
Hikmet Öksüz, The Representation of the Western Thracian Turkish Minority in the Greek Parliament, in : Turkish Review of Balkan Studies 2003 pp.135-152
Hikmet Öksüz, The Reasons for Immigration from Western Thrace to Turkey (1923-1950), in : Turkish Review of Balkan Studies 2004 pp.250-278
Pomak Information Exchange
Anna Triandafyllidou and Dia Anagnostou, The Muslims of estern Thrace. Recommendations for Regional Development Strategies
Article Turks of Western Thrace, Muslim Minority of Greece, from Wikipedia
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Greece : Muslims
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Greece, from Kirken i Norge
Article Greek Church, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1909 edition
Article Islam in Greece, from Wikipedia; see under Ethnology : Pomaks
International Religious Freedom Report 2003 : Greece, from U.S. Department of State
Sujeto Neglijado : Los Sefaradim en la Shoa, from Sephardic Studies; has list of destroyed Jewish communities in Thrace; in Ladino; The Sephardic Community of Gallipoli, from Sephardic Studies; relevant on W. Thrace
History of Regions Departments of Greece, from www.statoids.com
Theofanis Malkidis, The Agricultural Society and Tourism in Greece : The Case of the Island of Samothrace, in : Turkish Review of Balkan Studies 2003 pp.153-175
Articles Evros Prefecture, Rodhopi Prefecture, Xanthi Prefecture, from Wikipedia
Local History Articles Alexandroupoli : History (Dedeagh, Dedeagach, Dedeagatch), Komotini : History (Gumuljina), Xanthi : History, Didymoteicho : History (Demotica) from Wikipedia
The City's History, from Municipality of Xanthi
Institutions Structurae : Greece : East Macedonia and Thrace
History of Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini
Zarifeios School of Alexandroupolis, Thrace, from The Hellenic Archives of Scientific Instruments
Others Stefan Panaretov and Bulgarian-American Relations, trsl. from Bulgarian Historical Review, on possible US consulae in Dedeagach
Bulgarian women's headwear, from Eliznik, reference to Dedeagach
Bulgaria-Turkey Boundary, from International Boundary Study 1965

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Lists of Consuls etc. Russian Diplomats And Officials Affiliated With The Russian Mission In Greece, 1906-1924, from Hoover Institution; lists consular office, Dedeagach
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers The Battlefield of Grain, Time Magazine Oct. 14, 1940 (on Dedeagach)
Two-Edged Dagger, Time Magazine July 23 , 1945 (on Dedeagach)
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, scroll down for Thrakikigi and Xronos, two papers published in Komotini
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Article Treaty of Bucharest 1913, from Wikipedia; Treaty of Bucharest (text), from Mt. Holyoke
Article Treaty of Neuilly 1919, from Wikipedia ; Treaty of Neuilly (text), from World War I Document Archive
Document Collections Turkey enters the War and British Action (1914), from GWPDA
Historical Maps see WHKMLA Historical Atlas Greece, Bulgaria, Rumelia pages
Encyclopedia Entries
Article Adrianolpe, Vilayet, Dedeagatch, Demotica, Gumuljina, Xanthi, from EB 1911
Articles Dede-aghatsch, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892 edition, in German
Nordish Familjebok 2nd ed. : Articles Dede-Agatsch, vol.5 1906, in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Musea Folklore Museum of Komotini, from Visit Thrace
Ethnological Museum, Alexandroupolis, Thrace
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of the Republic of Gümüljina 1913, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes
Stamps Article Compendium of Postage Stamp Issuers - Western Thrace, from Wikipedia
Others Trimmings and Belt Buckles, from Bulgarian Jewelry, has Dedeagach item
Dedeagatch British Cemetery, from Find a Grave, from CWGC

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
Search ISBN Database for Bulgaria
on W Thrace
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on W Thrace Central and Eastern European Online Library
Bulgarian National Library : Digital Library; access requires registration
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
General Accounts E. Ashmead-Bartlett, With the Turks in Thrace (1913), posted on Internet Archive
Treaty between the Allied powers and Greece relative to Thrace. Signed at Sevres, August 10, 1920, posted on Internet Archive
Andre Gerolymatos, The Balkan Wars. Conquest, Revolution and Retribution from the Ottoman Era to the Twentieth Century and Beyond, NY : Basic Books 2002
Historical Dictionaries Th. Veremes, Historical Dictionary of Greece, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 949.5 V492b

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