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Literature on the History of Central Africa
Rep. Congo Angola
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on November 2nd 2013

Prehistory (-1885) . Except for a small coastal stretch (historically part of the Kingdom of Kongo, and by 1880 claimed by Portugal as part of Angola), most of what was to become the Congo Free State was largely unknown to Europeans; in part because the Livingstone Falls made navigation upriver beyond Matadi impossible. The territory was inhabited by an ethnically heterogene population, and divided into numerous polities, among which the Luba-Lunda Kingdom (Katanga) was one of the most prominent.
In the decade prior to the establishment of the Congo Free State, Arab slave trade had an erosive impact on traditional polities; Msiri's Kingdom is an example for a polity established by a slave trader (Katanga).

Congo Free State (1885-1908) . Explorer Henry Morton Stanley, after having traversed the Congo Basin, together with King Leopold II of Belgium, established the International African Association, which established a government over the Congo Basin and in 1885 transmutated into the Congo Free State, with King Leopold II as sovereign and Stanley as its first governor. Capital Boma. A railway line was constructed around the Victoria Falls; a fleet of steamers were put on the Congo River and its tributaries. At first, ivory accounted for most of the Free State's revenue; later, rubber was to take its place.
The Congo Free State was not a colony; it had to make ends meet without a financial subsidy from the motherland. The native population was coerced to regularly deliver a 'tax' in form of a quantity of rubber. State officials were encouraged to collect as much rubber as possible, and they were given free hand in their treatment of the native population. Reports about atrocities against the native Congolese reached Europe, and a campaign against the Congo Free State (1903-1908) was launched in Europe by E.D. Morel. Commissions sent into the Congo Free State confirmed the abuses; in 1908 Belgium took over the Congo Free State, which now became the Belgian Congo (1908-1960).
Note: while numerous atrocities have been reported from the Congo Free State, the application of the term "genocide" is disputed. In a number of sources, statistical figures (a population of 20 million prior to the establishment of the Congo Free State, a population of 10 million at the time of the Belgian takeover) are used to support the usage to terms such as genocide or holocaust. In the 19th century no administration in Africa conducted a population census; population figures given in historical sources from that time are (very rough, usually exaggerated) estimates. Jan Lahmeyer, for 1890, estimates the territory of the Congo Free State to have had a population of 3.3 million (Lahmeyer, Population Statistics, D.R. Congo).

Belgian Congo (1908-1960) . Reports about atrocities ceased following the takeover. Railroads connecting Katanga with coastal ports were completed, and copper ore/copper became the country's leading export product. During World War II (when Belgium itself was occupied by the Germans) the Belgian Congo sided with the Allies and supplied valuable raw material, a.o. the uranium for the Manhattan Project.

Independence (1960-) . In 1960 the Belgian Congo was released into independence. New Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba wanted to break the hold Belgian banks and companies had on the Katanga mines and contemplated a Soviet alliance. Belgium and the U.S. supported his opponents; Lumumba was dismissed, arrested, executed. The new strongman was Mobutu Sese Seko. President since 1965, he renamed the country Zaire in 1971. He ruled until 1997 and is regarded one of the worst kleptocrats in history. He was toppled in the course of a civil war in 1997. Since, the country has seen further internal military conflicts, which at times see ethnic groups facing each other, but which are often fought over control of productive mining areas.

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Country Profiles Current CIA World Factbook : D.R. Congo; BBC Country Profile : D.R. Congo; World Reference Desk : Congo (Zaire)
Country Profile : D.R. Congo, from ISS
Entry DRC, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
Entry Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DROC), from Encyclopedia of Nations
Art and Life in Africa : D.R.Congo
DR Congo Profile, from International Crisis Group
UK Border Agency, Country of Origin Report : D.R. Congo, leads to report 2012
Historical A.M. Gochet, Le Congo belge illustre 1888, IA
F. Desour, Le Congo belge 1890, IA
E.E.F. Descamps, New Africa; an essay on government civilization in new countries, and on the foundation, organization and administration of the Congo Free State 1903, IA
B. Moncheur, Conditions in the Congo Free State 1904, IA
P.S. Reinsch, Real Conditions in the Congo Free State, North American Review 178 1904
F. Cattier, Etude sur la situation de l'Etat independant du Congo 1906, IA
F. Goffart, Le Congo 1908, IA
Notre colonie : le Congo belge, 1909, IA
F. Starr, The Congo Free State and Congo Belge, The Journal of Race Development 1 1911 pp.383-399
G. Morissens, L'oeuvre civilisatrice au Congo belge 1912, IA
M. Calmeyn, Au Congo belge : chasses a l'elephant, les indigenes, l'administration 1912, IA
J. Roland et E. Duchesne, Cours Complet de Geographie : Le Congo Belge (complete course of geography : the Belgian Congo), Namur : Wesmael-Charlier 1914; in English translation posted at this site.
Naval Intelligence Division (UK), A manual of Belgian Congo 1920, IA
Belgiums Policy in the Belgian Congo 1956, IA
Office de l'information et des relations publiques pour le Congo belge et le Ruanda-Urundi, Belgian Congo, vol.1 1959, vol.2 1960, IA
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Zaire
Links General D.R. Congo (Zaire) Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
on History Virtual Library History : D.R. Congo
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedie du Congo Belge, vol.1, n.d., Gallica
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Current History of D.R. Congo, from newafrica.com, 3 chapters
N. Rolland, A Short History of the Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa), n.d., IA
Historical H.M. Stanley, The Congo and the Founding of Its Free State: A Story of Work and Exploration vol.1 1885, vol.2 1885, IA
P. Blaise, Le Congo: histoire, description, moeurs et coutumes 1892, IA
H.W. Wack, The story of the Congo Free State 1905, IA
H.H. Johnston, George Grenfell and the Congo, vol.1, 1910, vol.2, 1910, IA
A.J. Wauters, Histoire politique du Congo Belge 1911, IA
Specific Periods Precolonial,
Article : Early Congolese History, from Wikipedia
Article : Colonization of the Congo, from Wikipedia
M. Hutchinson, A report of the Kingdom of Congo : and of the surrounding countries ; drawn out of the writings and discourses of the Portuguese, Duarte Lopez 1881, IA
L. Duarte, F. Pigafetta, Le Congo: la véridique description du royaume Africain, appelé, tant par les indigènes que par les Portugais, le Congo [1574] Fr. trsl. 1883, IA
P. de Coster, De eerste Europese ontdekkingsreizen in Katanga, 1797-1897, thesis Gent 1997
X. Stainier, L'Age de la pierre au Congo 1899, Gallica
DADM : Belgian Congo 1908-1960, Congo-Kinshasa/Zaire/Democratic Republic of Congo (1960-present)
EISA : DRC: From hunter-gatherers to trading kingdoms (8000 BCE-1878 CE) 2005
EISA : DRC: Congo Free State: 1878-1908 2005
EISA : DRC: Belgian colonialism: 1908-1960 2005
EISA : DRC: First Republic: 1960-1965 2005
EISA : DRC: Second Republic: 1965-1990 2005
EISA : DRC: Third Republic: 1990-1997 2005
EISA : DRC: Civil war: 1997-2003 2005
EISA : DRC: Peace process: 2003-June 2006 2006
EISA : DRC: Transition to democracy: June - December 2006 2007
Congo Free State,
Histoire de la colonisation belge du Congo, 1876-1910, from La Republique nous appelle ..
S.L. Hinde, The Fall of the Congo Arabs 1897, IA
A. Halot, Vingt-cinq ans de civilisation au Congo 1908, IA
S. Geens, Congo under King Leopold II
R. Slade, English Missionaries and the Beginning of the Anti-Congolese Campaign in England, Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire 1955 vol.33 No.33-1 pp.37-73
D. Nault, "At the Bar of Public Sentiment": The Congo Free State Controversy, Atrocity Tales, and Human Rights History 2012
Yale University, Genocide Studies Program, Congo Free State, 1885-1908
H. Vanhauwaert, 'All the King's Men'. Een zoektocht naar de koloniale ideeën van enkele adviseurs en "handlangers" van Leopold II (1853-1892), thesis Leuven 2005
P.L. Plasman, Le Congo leopoldien, de l'ombre a la clarte? Episode (meconnu) d'une (sombre) histoire coloniale, Bulletin d'information de l'Association Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine 2012
G. Hesselbein, The Rise and Decline of the Congolese State. An Analytical Narrative on State-Making, LSE 2007
Belgian Congo, 1908-1960 Belgiska Kongo, from susning.nu, geographical-historical, in Swedish
Article : Belgian Congo, from Wikipedia
A. Wauters, The Belgian Congo, reservoir of the allies 1942, IA
Belgian Information Center, Belgian Congo at War, 1942, IA
W. Ford, Belgian Africa's total war 1942, IA
K. Leysen, "Coloniser, c'est transporter!" Et alors la question de la main d'oeuvre? De Belgische koloniale politiek met betrekking tot Belgisch Congo (1919-1929), thesis Leuven 2006
D. Neudt, Wij hebben een taak in Kongo. De verbeelding van Afrika bij Jef van Bilsen. thesis Gent 2002
S. Carels, Matamata & Pilipili. Een studie naar de overlevering van westerse waarden en normen in Belgisch Congo via komische en educatieve films, thesis Leuven 2004
L. Goeman, Topambtenaar in Belgisch-Kongo. Een studie naar beeldvorming bij ambtenaren in gewestdienst, van het niveau van gouverneur-generaal tot hulpgewestbeheerder, in de periode 1958-1960, thesis Gent 1997
I. Ferrand, Congo 1955-1960. De aanloop naar de onafhankelijkheid. Een analyse van de berichtgeving in drie Vlaamse kranten: De Standaard, Vooruit, Het Laatste Nieuws, thesis Gent 2001
B. Cleys, Andries Dequae. De zelfgenoegzaamheid van een koloniaal bestuur (1950-1954) (B. Congo), thesis Leuven 2002
A. Lauro, Maintenir l'ordre dans la colonie-modele. Notes sur les desordres urbains et la police des frontieres raciales au Congo Belge (1918-1945) 2012
D.E.M. Pistor, Developmental colonialism and Kitawala policy in 1950s Belgian Congo, thesis Simon Fraser Univ. 2012
Histoire de la colonisation belge du Congo, 1876 - 1910, from CoBelCo, in French
From Lumumba to Mobutu, 1960-1965 Article : Congo Crisis, from Wikipedia
C. van de Velde, Du Congo belge a la Republique du Congo. 1955-1965 n.d.
M.S. Rognoni, Dag Hammarskjöld and the Congo Crisis, 1960-61, ECAS 2011
L. Szabo, The Belgian Disengagement and the UN's Activity in the Congo in the Eyes of the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affaires in 1960, ECAS 2011
Era Mobutu, 1965-1997 Article : Mobutisme, from Wikipedia French edition
M.J. Kisui, le systeme criminel mobutiste, dossier
Article : Zaire, from Wikipedia
W. Reno, Sovereignty and Personal Rule in Zaire, African Studies Quarterly vol.1 1997
F. Stellamans, Joseph Mobutu, sterke man of bloeddictator? Een analyse van de berichtgeving in de binnen- en buitenlandse pers over de opkomst van het Mobuturegime, thesis Leuven 2006
S. van Bever, Het beeld van Mobutu Sese Seko in de Belgische pers. De Standaard, Vooruit & De Morgen, La Libre Belgique, Le Peuple (1965-1997), thesis Gent 2005
Since 1997 Articles First Congo War 1996-1997, Second Congo War 1998-2003, Ituri Conflict 1999-2007, Kivu Conflict 2004-, Dongo Conflict 2004-, M23 Rebellion 2012-, from Wikipedia
Global Security, Military : Congo Civil War
A. Mackie, The Utility of Darkness: Figments of a State called the Democratic Republic of the Congo, thesis Macalester 2013
A.Z. Trautman, From Zaire to the DRC: A Case Study of State Failure, thesis Univ. of South Florida 2013
C.K. Kabemba, Democratisation and the Political Economy of a Dysfunctional State: The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo, thesis Univ. of Witwatersrand 2011
C. Schmidt, Into the Heart of Darkness: Cosmopolitanism vs. Realism and the Democratic Republic of Congo, thesis Ohio State 2010
C. Kelly, Belgian Intervention Policy in the DRC: Causes and Consequences of the Reorientation, 1999-2006 2008
Historiography Wikipedia Article : Congo Free State propaganda war
S. Geenen, Herinneringen aan Kongo. De beeldvorming in de Belgische, Franstalige Kongoromans gepubliceerd na 1960, thesis Gent 2005
Ideology in the Schoolbooks in the Belgian Congo, by Honore Vinck, from ABBOT
I. Goddeeris et al., Congomania in Academia. Recent Historical Research on the Belgian Colonial Past, 2011
Politics Political Resources on the Net : D.R. Congo
For the Record : DR Congo, from UN Human Rights System
C.F. Littell, The neutralization of states; a study in diplomatic history and international law, 1920, IA; pp.54-67 on the Congo Free State
F. Cattier, Droit et adminstration de l'Etat independant du Congo 1898, IA
B. van Maele, De buitenlandse betrekkingen van Belgisch Congo aan de vooravond van de Tweede Wereldoorlog (1939-1940) thesis Gent 1999
T. Ritchie, A Familiar Frontier: The Kennedy Administration in the Congo, thesis Brandeis 2012
J.W. Donaldson, Marking Territory. Demarkation of the DRC-Zambia Boundary from 1894 to the Present Day, thesis Durham 2010
E.M. Davis, The United States and the Congo, 1960-1965 : Containment, Minerals and Strategic Location, thesis Univ. of Kentucky 2013
G. Bechtolsheimer, Breakfast with Mobutu: Congo, the United States and the Cold War, 1964-1981, thesis LSE 2012
Military Wars of D.R. Congo, 1800-1999, from ACED
J. Ebenga, Th. N'Landu, The Congolese National Army: In search of an identity , ch. 3, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
Articles First Congo War 1996-1997, Second Congo War 1998-2003, Ituri Conflict 1999-2007, Kivu Conflict 2004-, Dongo Conflict 2004-, M23 Rebellion 2012-, from Wikipedia
Global Security, Military : Congo Civil War
Article : Revolte des Batetela, from Wikipedia French edition
CASCON Case CON : Congo (Katanga) 1960-1963, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
The Brazilian Air Force in Congo, 1960-1964, from Forca Aerea Brasileira
Canberras in the Congo, from Indian Air Force
J. Morel, Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, 2005 : 17 janvier 1961: Assassinat de Patrice Lumumba a Elizabethville (Congo ex-belge), 28 janvier 1993: Assassinat de Philippe Bernard, ambassadeur de France a Kinshasa (Zaire)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Congo Free State, Congo Crisis, 1960-1964, Stanleyville Revolt, 1964-1965, Mercenary Uprising, 1967-1968, Zaire : Uprisings and Repression, 1977-1983, Zaire : Conflicts, 1992-1994, First Congo War (Civil War) 1997, Second Congo War, 1998ff, Ituri 1999-2007
Economy & Finances Global Currency History : D.R. Congo; Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Congo Kinshasa
Global Integrity : D.R. Congo 2006
S.W. Skinner, The agricultural economy of the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi 1960 ed., 1962 ed., IA
S.W. Skinner, The Congo's agricultural economy in brief 1965, IA
F. Degiorgio, Congo's agricultural economy in brief 1969, IA
Office de l'information et des relations publiques pour le Congo belge et le Ruanda-Urundi, Commercial information relative to the principal products of the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, 1959, IA
P.L. Wigny, A ten year plan for the economic and social development of the Belgian Congo 1950, IA
J. Plas et al., Les societes commerciales belges et le regime economique et fiscal de l'etat independant du Congo 1899, IA
A. Thonnar, Essai sur le systeme economique des primitifs d'apres les populations de l'Etat independant du Congo 1901, IA
M.H. Buttenbach, Les mines du Katanga 1908, IA
J. Dupont, Etude economique sur le Katanga 1913, IA
European Guide on Banking and Reverse Mortgage Loans, History of the company/bank and archive description for Compagnie Maritime Belge (CMB) N.V.
R. Brion et al., Compagnie du Congo pour le Commerce et l'Industrie et Compagnie du Katanga (alias 'Finoutremer') (1887-1984), Scribd
A. Merlon, Le Congo Producteur 1888, Gallica
A.J. Wauters, Le Congo au point de vue economique 1885, Gallica
L. Ndikumana et al., Congo's Odious Debt: External Borrowing and Capital Flight in Zaire, 2000
C.H. Jensen, Rumble in the Jungle. The 'Blessing' and 'Curse' of Mineral Wealth in the Congo, thesis Aalborg 2012
H. Engilbertsdottir, Colonial Legacy in the Great Lakes Region. Has British and Belgian colonialism affected economic development differently in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda?, thesis Univ. of Iceland 2011
J.W. Mantz, Improvisational economies: Coltan production in the eastern Congo , 2008
De Norske Kongofarerne 1895-1908, from Fritt og Vilt, in Norwegian; on exploitation of Congolese natives
R.W. Johnson, Tobacco production and trade in southern Africa, 1975, IA on Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, The Malagasy Republic, Zaire, The Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Angola
Social History Information : Congo Kinshasa, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
D.R. Congo, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
W.H. Bentley, Life on the Congo 1887, IA
C.F.A. Lemaire, Au Congo, comment les noirs travaillent 1895, IA
M. de Ramaix, La question sociale en Belgique et le Congo 1891, IA
J. Seibert, More Continuity than Change ? New Forms of Unfree Labor in the Belgian Congo, 1908-1930 2011
B. Eggermont, Inculturatie van het christelijk huwelijk in Belgisch Kongo. 1919-1950. De beleidsvorming van de Missie-Oversten omtrent polygamie; hun richtlijnen aan de missionarissen en inwerking op het beleid van de Staat, thesis Gent 1990
M.E, Dunkerley, Education Policy and the Development of the Colonial State in the Belgian Congo, 1916-1939, thesis Exeter 2009
CEGESOMA, The Gender Question in the Belgian Congo. A Review of the Project "Women in the Colony"
Travail force pour le cuivre du Katanga, from CoBelCo, in French
Rural Poverty Portal, Rural poverty in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Ethnography Languages of the D.R. Congo (218), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : DR Congo
A.M. Gochet, Les Congolais : leurs moeurs et usages : histoire, geographie et ethnographie de l'etat indépendant du Congo 1890, IA
F. Starr, Congo natives; an ethnographic album 1912, IA
M. Baerts, Organisation politique civile et penale de la tribu des Mousseronghes 1890, IA
The People on the Kongo, Science, 1886, IA
Database for Indigenous Cultural Evolution (DICE), Bakongo, Kikongo, Lokele, Luba, Lunda
I.M. de Rezende, Visuality and Colonialism in the Congo: From the "Arab War" to Patrice Lumumba, 1880s to 1961 2013 (on the Tetela, formerly known as Batetela)
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : D.R. Congo, from Kirken i Norge
D.R. Congo, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Patron Saint Index : Belgian Congo
C. van Straelen, Missions catholiques et protestantes au Congo 1898, Gallica
Jewish Virtual Library, Democratic Republic of Congo
N. Verhoeven, De Zusters van Liefde van Jezus en Maria in Kongo. een studie van hun ervaringen tijdens de woelige jaren van de onafhankelijkheid (1955-1965), thesis Gent 2003
K. Rountree, Catholic Missionaries in Africa, The White Fathers and the Belgian Congo 1950-1955, thesis Louisiana State Univ. 2009
J. Briffaerts, The Missionaries And The Belgian Congo: Preparation, Ideas And Conceptions Of The Missionaries, Rozenberg Quarterly July 2013
Congo Church Association, History of the Anglican Church in Congo
History of Regions Modern Provinces of the D.R. Congo, from www.statoids.com
Zones of the D.T. Congo, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republique democratique du Congo (Etat libre du Congo) 1968-07-08, Republique du Zaire 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, Republique democratique du Congo 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Article : History of the Kasai Region, by Wikipedia
J. Beck, Contested Land in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo 2012
Colonial Era J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, Colonie du Congo Belge, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08
Wikipedia Article Lado Enclave
G. Gardet, Histoire du Katanga, 1913, IA
N. Veerle, Conflict and subversion in the Central Congo between 1920 and 1940, Annales Aequatoria 24 2003
L. van der Straeten, Katanga in wereld-systeemperspectief , thesis Gent 2001
History of the Lado Enclave, in : South Sudan : A History of Political Domination - A Case of Self-Determination, by Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon, UPenn; scroll down
Katanga : Kongo's secessionist nightmare, from OTN Congo Glossary
Zaire: IRIN Briefing Part V: Shaba, 3/19/97, from Integrated Regional Information Network (UN), on insurrection in Katanga 1960-1964, 1977/78, 1984-85
La Naissance du Katanga, history 1876-1906, in French
Precolonial H.A.D. de Carvalho, A Lunda, ou os estados do Muatianvua, dominios da soberania de Portugal, comprovados pela antigaexpansao e influencia dos portuguezes, convençoes com as naçoes estrangeiras e estado livre do Congo sobre a divisao politica do continente africano; tratados, declaraçoes com os diversos pot entados dos estados indigenas, embaixadas que teem vindo a Loanda e ainda pela correspondencia official trocada entre o chefe da expediçao portugueza ao Muatianvua de 1884-1888 com as diversas auctoridades portuguezas e indigenas 1890, IA
Resistance and Collaboration at the Beginning of the Colonization in Mbandaka (1883-1893), by Honore Vinck, in French (aequatoria.be)
H.B. Mulinda, Aux origines du royaume de Ngoyo, Civilizations 41 1993
Local History
Institutions A. van Crombrugghe, Aviation in the Belgian Congo 1922, IA
Belgian Congo, DR Congo, Zaire, from Airline History
L. Trouet, Le chemin de fer du Congo 1898, IA
Railroads in the Congo Free State, Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 39 1907
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Kongostaat, pp.48-64
Cultural History L. Kochnitzky, Negro art in Belgian Congo 1952, IA
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History : African Christianity in Kongo, Dona Beatriz : Kongo Prophet, Kongo Ivories, Kingdoms of the Savanna : The Kuba Kingdom, The Luba and Lunda Empires
Biographies E. Janssen et al., Les belges au Congo; notices biographiques vol.1 1908, vol.2 1908, vol.3 1908, IA
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Others Fluweb Historical Influenza Database, "Pandemic of Influenza 1918-1919", S.P. James, The General Statistics of Influenza in Australasia and Parts of Africa and Asia, Belgian Congo p.377

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : D.R. Congo, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Congo Kinshasa, by B. Schemmel
Lists of Tribal Chieftains Chefs et Patriarches de Mbandaka, posted by Aequatoria.be, in French
Lists of Ambassadors Chinese Ambassadors to D.R. Congo, from PRC MOFA
List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to the D.R. Congo, Wikipedia
Article : United States Ambassador to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls Political Graveyard : U.S. Consuls in Congo (Kinshasa)
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Belgian Delegation, The present state of development of statistics in the Belgian Congo Ruanda-Urundi, 1959, UNECA
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics, D.R. Congo, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile D.R. Congo
Election Results Congo Kinshasa, from Elections around the World
Search IPU Parline for "Democratic Republic of the Congo"
EISA : D.R. Congo Election Archive
African Elections Database : Congo-Kinshasa
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes Republique Democratique du Congo, Journal Officiel de la RDC 2002-
Specific Newspapers Congo : revue generale de la Colonie belge = Congo : Algemeen tiidschrift van de Belgische Kolonie (no.1) 1920, Jan. 1 1921, Mar. 3 1921, Apr. 4 1921, Jan. 1 1922, Feb. 2 1922, Apr. 4 1922, May 7 1922, Jun. 1922, IA
Ligue internationale [\"puis\" Ligue française et Ligue suisse] pour la defense des indigenes dans le bassin conventionnel du Congo. Bulletin trimestriel, 1908-1910, Gallica
Collections of Articles History of the D.R. Congo, from World History Archives
Yearbooks International;
Congo / Zaire entries
Statesman's Year-Book, Congo Free State 1886, pp.708-710, IA, 1887, pp.732-734, IA, 1888, pp.736-738, IA, 1889, pp.741-743, IA, 1890, pp.428-430, IA, 1891, pp.434-437, IA, 1892, pp.432-434, IA, 1894, pp.439-441, IA, 1895, pp.439-441, IA, 1896, pp.439-441, IA, 1898, pp.439-441, IA, 1899, pp.479-481, IA, 1903, pp.528-532, IA, Belgian Congo 1913, pp.674-679, IA, 1919, pp.698-703, IA, 1921, pp.699-705, IA
Katanga in 1920, from South and East African Year Book and Guide, 26th edition 1920 p.144
UN Yearbook . UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Questions Relating to the Situation in the Republic of Congo (Leopoldville), 1960, 1961
Questions Concerning the Situation in the Congo (Leopoldville), 1962
Africa, Zaire 1996, Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
Newsreels, Films
Image Databanks License plates from D.R. Congo, from plaque.free.fr; from License Plates of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Congo DR
CEGESOMA, Gros plan sur les images du Congo (photos 1920-1970s)
Archival Deposits Kingdom of Belgium, Africa Archive
Musee Royale d'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren (B), Archives
The Institute of the National Parks of Belgian Congo, Archives of the former National Parks of the Belgian Congo
Centre Aequatoria, Archives
LSE Archives, Collection E.D. Morel
European Guide on Banking and Reverse Mortgage Loans, History of the company/bank and archive description for Compagnie Maritime Belge (CMB) N.V.
An Inventory of the Conseil national de liberation (Congo) Commandement des forces armees populaires. Etat major general records, at Hoover Institution
Constitutions, Laws Constitution de l'etat du Katanga, n.d.
Treaties UK Treaties Online, search for Belgian Congo; Congo
Environmental Treaties : D.R. Congo, from Pop Planet
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Dem. Rep. Congo, from ILO, 37 docs. since 1960
Convention between Belgium and the Congo Free State (1890), The American Journal of International Law 3, 1909, IA
Declaration of Neutrality of the Congo Free State (1885), The American Journal of International Law 3, 1909, IA
A. de Busschere (ed.), Code de traites et arrangements internationaux inte?ressant la Belgique, complete? 1o. par les traite?s conclus par l'Etat inde?pendant du Congo, 2o. par divers actes internationaux fixant des regles de droit public international, 3o. par la legislation relative aux principales matieres faisant l'objet des traites et annote? d'observations pratiques vol.1, 1896, IA
Treaty of Vivi, 1880, Treaty of Manyanga, 1882, Treaty of Leopoldville , 1883, Treaty with the King of Niadi, no date, List of Stations, Treaties, Districts Ceded, 1883, all posted at this site
General Act of the Berlin Conference, 1885, the so-called 'Congo Act', posted at this site
General Act of the Berlin Conference, 1885, from Australian Treaty Series
Declaration of the General Act of the Brussels Conference, 1890, from Australian Treaty Series
Convention revising the General Act of Berlin of 26 February 1885 and the General Act and Declaration of Brussels of 2 July 1890, St. Germain-en-Laye 1919, from Australian Treaty Series 1920 No.17
Treaty with Ngombi and Mafela, posted by J. O'Brien
Independent State of the Congo, pp.1004-1012 in vol.6 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Consular Reports To U.S. Congress : Report Relating to the occupation of the Congo country, 1885, IA
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Belgian Kongo, Dec. 20 1915, Belgian Kongo, Katanga Sept. 21 1916, IA
Despatches from United States Consuls in Boma 1888-1895, 1955, Digitized Books from the Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Foreign Relations of the United States 1851-1960, Univ. of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Foreign Relations of the United States, Summaries 1958-1968, U.S. State Department, Electronic Research Collections; especially Foreign Relations, 1961-63, Vol. XX, Congo Crisis
Historiography J. Conrad, Heart of Darkness 1899
E.D. Morel, The Congo Slave State, 1903, IA
M. Twain, King Leopold's Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Rule 1905, IA
A.C. Doyle, The Crime of the Congo 1909, IA
E.D. Morel, Great Britain and the Congo; the pillage of the Congo basin 1909, IA
E.D. Morel, Red rubber : the story of the rubber slave trade which flourished on the Congo for twenty years, 1890-1910 1919, IA
W.T. Stead, Leopold - Emperor of the Congo, from American Monthly Review of Reviews, July 28th 1903, posted at boondocksnet
Ought King Leopold be hanged ? 1905 interview with W.T. Stead, from boondocksnet
E.D. Morel, L'etat actuel de la question Congolaise, 1910, posted by CoBelCo
Document Collections Foreign Office (UK), Correspondence respecting the Independent state of the Congo vol.1 1907, IA
E.D. Morel (ed.), The Present state of the Congo question : official correspondence between the Foreign Office and the Congo Reform Association, 1912, IA
Affaires du Congo et de l'Afrique occidentale 1884, Gallica, 1885, Gallica, Affaires du Congo, 1884-1887 1890, Gallica; 1884-1895 1895, Gallica, Afrique : arrangements, actes et conventions concernant le nord, l'ouest et le centre de l'Afrique : 1881-1898 1898, Gallica
Leopold II et Beernaert : d'apres leur correspondance inedite de 1884 a 1894 vol.1 1920, vol.2 1920, IA
U.S. Department of State, Affairs in the Kongo, 1909, IA
Germany, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Aktenstücke betreffend die Kongo-Frage 1885, IA
Documents relatifs a la prefecture apostolique du Congo, 1881, Gallica
Search IPU Parline for "Congo, Democratic Republic"
Asser Institute, Documents Democratic Republic of Congo
Security Council Report : UN Documents on the Great Lakes Region, UN Documents for LRA-Affected Areas, UN Documents for the Democratic Republic of Congo
Individual Documents Congo Free State
G.W. Williams, [Report upon the Congo-State and country] to the President of the Republic of the United States of America 1890, IA
Federation Progressiste, La politique coloniale et le Congo devant le Parlement 1895, IA
M. de Mandat-Grancey 1900 : Temoignages de la brutalite de la domination coloniale, from cliotexte, scroll down
Temoignages recueillis a Boma et a Mopolenge, 1904, from CoBelCo
Commission d'Enquete, 1904 : Proces Verbal, posted by CoBelCo
Congo Reform Association, Evidence laid before the Congo Commission of Inquiry at Bwembu, Bolobo, Lulanga, Baringa, Bongandanga, Ikau, Bonginda, and Monsembe. Together with a summary of events (and documents connected therewith) on the A.B.I.R. concession since the Commission visited that territory 1905, IA
The Congo; a report of the Commission of enquiry appointed by the Congo Free State government 1906, IA
Abstract of the report of the Commission of enquiry into the administration of the Congo Free State 1906, IA
Report of the British Consul, Roger Casement, on the Administration of the Congo Free State 1906, IA
H.G. Guiness, Bokwala: the story of a Congo victim 1910, IA
Belgian Congo
Message by Mr. Renquin, Ministry of Colonies, to the Missionaries in the Congo, 1920, from Contre la censure, le clericalisme et les religions
Radio Congo interview with King Baudouin, 1958, from RTBF, in French
Radio programme on the Riots in Congo, Jan. 4th 1959, from RTBF, in French
Office de l'information et des relations publiques pour le Congo belge et le Ruanda-Urundi, The political future of the Belgian Congo; the royal message and the government's declaration of January 13, 1959, IA
L. Merchiers, A preliminary report on the atrocities committed by the Congolese army against the white population of the Republic of the Congo before the intervention of the Belgian forces 1960, IA
La ceremonie officielle de declaration d'independance du Congo se deroule le jeudi 30 juin 1960, a 11 heures, au Palais de la Nation. Une journee marquee par les discours du Roi Baudouin, du President Kasavubu et l'intervention inattendue du Premier Ministre Lumumba... , from RTBF, Text of Radio Programme covering the Ceremony; in French
Margaret Park, Leopoldville 1960, personal account of the evacuation of whites
Livre Blanc du Gouvernement katangais sur les evenements de septembre et decembre 1961. The Katangese Government's White paper on the events of September and December 1961. 1962, IA
Presentation Speech of the Nobel Peace Prize for 1961, awarded to Dag Hammarskjoeld, by Gunnar Jahn, from Nobel e-Museum, detailed on the Congo situation
U Thant : the Congo Problem, 1962, from Modern History Sourcebook
E. van den Haag, The war in Katanga; the United Nations in the Congo, report of a mission 1962, IA
White House Statement About a Meeting Between the President and President Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire, December 1, 1981, posted by Reagan Library, UTexas
Remarks Following Discussions With President Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire, June 29, 1989 posted by Bush Library, TAMU
Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater on President Bush's Meeting With President Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire, June 29, 1989 posted by Bush Library, TAMU
UN General Assembly Resolutions, 15th Session 1960-1961, No.1480 20 Sept. 1960, Admission of the Republic of Congo (Leopoldville) to the United Nations, No.1590 20 Dec. 1960, United Nations Operations in the Congo, No.1592 20 Dec. 1960, The Situation in the Republic of Congo, No.1595, 3 Apr. 1961, United Nations Operations in the Congo, Cost Estimates and Financing, No.1599 15 Apr. 1961, The Situation in the Republic of Congo, No.1600 , 15 Apr. 1961, The Situation in the Republic of Congo, No.1601, 15 Apr. 1961, The Situation in the Republic of Congo, No.1619 21 Apr. 1961, United Nations Operations in the Congo, 16th session 1961-1962 No.1633 30 October 1961, United Nations Operations in the Congo, Cost Estimates and Financing, No.1732, United Nations Operations in the Congo, Cost Estimates and Financing
UN Security Council Resolutions 1964 res. 199, 1966 res. 226, 1967 res. 239, 241, 1996 res. 1078, 1080, 1997 res. 1097, 1999 res. 1234, 1258, 1273, 1279, 2000 res. 1291, 1304, 1316, 1323, 1332, 2001 res. 1341, 1355, 1376, 2002 res. 1399, 1417, 1445, 2003 res. 1457, 1468, 1484, 1489, 1493, 1499, 1501, 2004 res. 1522, 1533, 1552, 1555, 1565, 2005 res. 1592, 1596, 1616, 1621, 1628, 1635, 1649, 2006 res. 1653, 1654, 1669, 1671, 1693, 1698, 1711, 1736, 2007 res. 1742, 1751, 1756, 1768, 1771, 1794, 2008 res. 1797, 1799, 1804, 1807, 1843, 1856, 1857, 2009 res. 1896, 1906, 2010 res. 1925, 1952, 2011 res. 2021, 2012 res. 2053, 2076, 2078, 2013 res. 2098
Historical Maps responsible institutions Centre de Recherche Geographique et de Cartographie (CERGEC), National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections Democratic Republic of Congo Maps, PCL, UTexas
Whole Country, Modern Wikipedia : D.R. Congo, Major Languages
Whole Country, Contemporary Pre-Congo Free State Map of 1890, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Am. ed. 1890, posted by Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, features Lunda as yet unclaimed African territory
Africa map of 1892 from Gardiner's Atlas of English History, 1892 shows Lunda split up betw. Portugal, Belgium, borders 'strange'
R. Kiepert, Carte du bassin du Congo, 1885, 1886, features precolonial polities, Gallica
Congo Free State Croquis de l'Afrique équatoriale, contenant les derniers renseignements recueillis par les agouts de l'Association internationale du Congo 1885, Gallica
J. Lebegue, Carte de l'etat independant du Congo 1880 [?], 1894 Gallica
H. Habenicht, Der Congo-Staat und das Freihandelsgebiet 1885, IA
A.J. Wauters, Carte de l'Etat independant du Congo dressee d'après les derniers renseignements : avec un resume chronologique des principaux faits de l'histoire de l'oeuvre africaine, 1878 a 1887, 1887, Gallica
Map : Carte de l'organisation administrative en 1888, from CoBelCo
J. du Fief, Carte de l'Etat indépendant du Congo et de l'Afrique centrale 1890, 1892, Carte de l'Etat indépendant du Congo 1895, Gallica
Das Gebiet der Internationalen Kongo-Gesellschaft, nach R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Chavanne u.A., Illinois University Library
Wikimedia : Map of the Congo Free State by E. D. Morel, 1904; features concession territories
Wikimedia : Congo Free State, Revenue Divisions, 1906
Belgian Congo Belgian Congo, Provinces, posted by S. Bradley
Maps : The Belgian Congo 1914, Physical and Administrative. Administrative & Political (the latter focussing on neighbours), from Roland & Duchesne 1914, posted at this site
Map : Carte de l'organisation administrative en 1910, from CoBelCo
Map : Carte de l'organisation administrative en 1929, from CoBelCo
Map : Carte de l'organisation administrative en 1940, Carte de l'organisation administrative en 1960, from CoBelCo
Detail, Modern Relief Web, Carte des distrits et territoires du Katanga
Detail, Contemporary Topographical Lannoy de Bissy, 1:2,000,000, Ounya-N'Zingue 1885, Kabebe 1885, Inguimma 1885, Illinois University Library
R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000, 35. Inguimma 1885, 36. Lado 1889, 39. San Salvador 1884, 39. San Salvador 1897, 40. Ounya-N'Zingue 1884, 40. Loulouabourg 1891, 40. Loulouabourg 1895, 41. Tabora 1885, 41. Tabora 1892, 44. Kabebe 1885, 44. Kabebe 1895, 45. Livingstonia 1888, Gallica
U.S. Army Map Service, Belgian Congo 1:100,000, 1942, set of 7 sheets; Belgian Congo 1:200,000 1943, set of 13 sheets; posted by PCL, UTexas
Great Britain. War Office. General Staff. Geographical Section, 1913-, reissued by U.S. Army Map Service, 1942-, Africa 1:1,000,000, sheets Ouesso, Coquilhatville, Stanleyville, Uganda, Banzyville, Wau, Mongalla, Banningville, Inongo, Costermansville, Lake Victoria, Leopoldville, Lusambo, Albertville, Tabora, Dilolo, Elizabethville, 1942-1943, posted by PCL, UTexas
U.S. Army Map Service, Africa 1:2,000,000, sheets French Congo, Kisangani, Kinshasa, Lubumbashi, 1958-1973, posted by PCL, UTexas
Other Wikipedia : Lado Enclave (Hertslet 1909)
R.P. Augouard, Carte du Congo depuis son embouchure jusqu'a Stanley-Pool, n.d., Gallica
D'Anville, Carte particuliere du royaume de Congo et de ce qui precede depuis le cap de Lopo 1731, Gallica
A.H. Brue, Carte d'une partie de l'Afrique equinoxiale 1829, Gallica
Institut national de geographie (Bruxelles), Le Congo, depuis l'equateur jusqu'a l'Ocean et la vallee du Niadi-Kwilu 1883, Gallica
A.J. Wauters, La region des sources du Congo, le Katanga et le bassin du Bangwelo 1898, Gallica
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Belgian Congo, Congo Free State, Kasai, Katanga, from EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Religious Article Congo Free State, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908 edition
Economic Belgian Congo pp.351-353 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Congo Free State pp.133-136
Geographical Leo Africanus [c.1492-c.1550], The history and description of Africa vol.1 1896, IA; Congo, Angola, Quizama pp.71-77; vol.II 1896, IA; (Maghreb)
A. du Bois, La Geographie moderne, naturelle historique & politique, vol.4 : Afrique etc., 1736, GB; ch.VIII Le Congo pp.763-767
Thomas Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744-1746 edition vol.3 Congo pp.37-38
T.G. Smollett, The Present State of all Nations, vol.8 1769, GB; Lower Guinea, or Congo pp.159-169
W. Guthrie, A new system of modern geography : or, A geographical, historical, and commercial grammar ; and present state of the several nations of the world ... vol.2 1794, IA; Of Africa from the Tropic of Cancer to the Cape of Good Hope pp.189-191
T.F. Ehrmann, Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, vol.8, Afrika, 1810, GB
C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, vol.3, 1827, GB; Congo pp.30-53
Ethnological Belgian Congo, pp.381-409 in vol.1B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard (British Parliament) for Congo
Verbatim report of the five days' Congo debate in the Belgian House of Representatives (February 20, 27, 28; Marth 1, 2) 1906, IA
La Chambre des representants de Belgique, Annales parlementaires 1844/1845-
Senat de Belgique, Annales 1848-
Travelogues J.H. Tuckey, Narrative of an expedition to explore the river Zaire, usually called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816, under the direction of Captain J. K. Tuckey, R. N. To which is added, the journal of Professor Smith; and some general observations on the country and its inhabitants 1818, IA
R.F. Burton, Two Trips to Gorilla Land and the Cataracts of the Congo vol.1 1876, vol.2 1876, IA
P. Pogge, Im Reiche des Muata Jamwo. Tagebuch meiner im Auftrage der Deutschen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung Aequatorial-Afrika's in die Lunda-Staaten unternommenen Reise 1880, IA
H. Bailey, Travel and Adventures in the Congo Free State and Its Big Game Shooting 1894, IA
C. Söllner, Une voyage au Congo, 1897, IA
P. Verhaegen, Au Congo; impressions de voyage 1898, IA
M. Dorman, A Journal of a Tour in the Congo Free State 1905, IA
Mountmorres, The Congo independent state : a report on a voyage of enquiry 1906, IA
A.J. Witteryck, Une excursion au Congo belge, 1910, IA
A. Delcommune, Notre voyage au Congo en 1920 1921, IA
M. Pescatore, Chasses et voyages au Congo 1932, Gallica
Tourist Guides A. Donny, Manuel du voyageur et du resident au Congo, vol.1 1900, vol.2 1900, IA
Exhibition Catalogues Exposition universelle, Antwerpen : Les colonies et l'Etat indépendant du Congo 1895, IA
Guide de la section de l'Etat independant du Congo a l'Exposition de Bruxelles-Tervueren en 1897, IA
Institutions Archives
Libraries National Libraries of Africa : Democratic Republic Congo
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthems, D.R. Congo, from National Anthems, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Belgian Congo, of Katanga, of D.R. Congo, from World Currency Museum; of Belgian Congo, of Katanga, of D.R. Congo from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Search Coin Archives for Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Zaire, D.R. Congo, Congo Leopoldville
Belgian Congo, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Coin Catalog of Congo, D.R., from Numismaticon
Katangan banknotes, from ATS World Paper Money Catalogue; The Banknotes of Katanga, by P.J. Symes, Book Review, with illustrations
Katanga Coin, from Joel's Coins, a commercial site
Stamps Rare Belgian Congo Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Congo Free State / Belgian Congo, 1886-1908, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
Online Stamp & Post Card Catalogue Congo Free State, by Guy van Rijn, in French

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Congo survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Ethno-Net Africa Database : Congo Kinshasa, Bibliography
general bibliographies A.J. Wauters, Bibliographie du Congo, 1880-1895, 1895, IA
Belgian Information Center (NY), A selective bibliography of books on subjects related to the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi published in the U.S.A. from 1940 to 1958 1958, IA
C. Monein, Congo-Bibliographie 1942
pp.233-349 in F.S. Bobb, Historical Dictionary of Zaire, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1988 [G]
pp.457-592 in V. Thompson, R. Adloff, S. Decalo, Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1996, KMLA Library R 967.51 B653h
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Bibliographie de l'Archeologie de l'Afrique Centrale : Republique Democratique du Congo
V.K. Muyumba, Luba-Kasai: A Working Bibliography, Electronic Journal of African Bibliography 9/2004
Bibliography - American Museum Congo Expedition 1909-1915
bibliographie histoire du Congo - La colonisation belge du Congo, from Cobelco
F. Starr, A bibliography of Congo languages 1908, IA
Columbia University Libraries, African Studies, The Art of Kuba Weaving : Suggested Reading
Columbia University Libraries, African Studies, African Oral Tradition, History and Literature, DR Congo
serial publications
general Africa bibliographies
Congo entries
African Women Bibliographic Database
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on Sub-Saharan Africa
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Demokratische Republik Kongo-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust
International Boundary Studies
on Congo Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Servers
Online Journals Guides Electronic Journals Online
on Congo Le Congo Illustre, 1892, 1894, 1895, IA
Aequatoria 1937-1962
Annales Aequatoria 1980-1999
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.15, pp.644-650 Article Central Africa : Zaire. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.15
Robert Cornevin, Histoire du Congo, Paris 1970 [G]
Specific Topics Chapter 32 : Congo I : Belgian Policy in Africa, pp.646-668; 33 : Congo II : Uranium, Giants, Pygmies, pp.669-690, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
A. de Bauw, Katanga, Het Land, zijn Hulpbronnen en Toekomst (K., the land, its resources and future), Antwerpen : Het Nederlandsche Boekhandel 1920 [G]
Insurgencies in Sudan, Uganda and Zaire, pp.203-227, in : John W. Turner, Continent Ablaze. The Insurgency Wars in Africa, 1960 to the Present, London : Cassell 1998
Historical Dictionaries F. Scott Bobb, Historical Dictionary of Zaire, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1988 [G]
Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Historical Atlas
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year The Belgian Congo, 1913 pp.969-971 [G]
Belgian Colonial Empire, 1944 p.106, 1945 p.103, 1946 pp.116-117, 1947 pp.121-122, 1948 p.116, 1949 pp.97-98, 1950 pp.105-106, 1951 p.103, 1952 p.99, 1953 pp.99-100, 1954 p.98, 1955 p.159, 1956 pp.99-100, 1957 p.158, 1958 p.98 [G]
Belgian Overseas Territories, 1959 pp.100-101 [G]
Congo, Republic of the, 1961 pp.187-190, 1962 pp.177-179, 1963 pp.289-290, 1964 pp.277-278 [G]
Congo, Democratic Republic of the, 1965 pp.263-264, 1966 pp.209-210, 1967 pp.232-233, 1968 pp.232-234, 1969 pp.223-224, 1970 pp.228-229, 1971 p.215, 1972 pp.199-200 [G]
Zaire : 1973 pp.735-736, 1974 pp.733-734, 1975 pp.733-734, 1976 pp.735-736, 1977 p.738, 1978 pp.735-736, 1979 pp.736-738, 1980 pp.734-735, 1981 pp.733-734, 1982 pp.733-734, 1983 pp.732-734, 1984 pp.733-734, 1985 pp.478-479, 816, 1986 pp.474-475, 817, 1988 pp.402-403, 737, 1989 pp.402-403, 737, 1990 pp.419-420, 753, 1993 pp.375, 753, 1994 pp.373-374, 753, 1995 pp.505-506, 753 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Congo Free State, 1895 pp.439-440 [G]
Congo Independent State, 1898 pp.439-441, 1901 pp.504-509, 1905 pp.551-557 [G]
Belgian Congo, 1910 pp.644-650, 1919 pp.698-703, 1924 pp.692-697, 1925 pp.702-708, 1926 pp.681-686, 1928 pp.689-695, 1929 pp.683-689, 1932 pp.688-694, 1937 pp.722-728, 1943 pp.724-729 [G]
Congo, 1970-1971 pp.828-832 [G]
Zaire, 1975-1976 pp.1489-1493, 1978-1979 pp.1612-1615, 1980-1981 pp.1613-1617, 1983-1984 pp.1616-1619, 1984-1985 pp.1618-1612, 1985-1986 pp.1614-1618, 1987-1988 pp.1615-1619, 1988-1989 pp.1618-1622, 1989-1990 pp.1614-1618, 1990-1991 pp.1616-1620, 1991-1992 pp.1612-1616, 1992-1993 pp.1621-1625, 1993-1994 pp.1625-1629, 1994-1995 pp.1623-1627, 1995-1996 pp.1616-1620, 1996-1997 pp.1614-1618, 1997-1998 pp.1618-1622 [G]
Congo, DR, 1998-1999 pp.418-422, 2000 pp.483-488, 2001 pp.469-474, 2002 pp.489-494, 2003 pp.487-492, 2004 pp.488-493, 2005 pp.485-491 [G]
International Yearbook Congo Free State, 1898 pp.209-212 [G]
Americana Annual Belgian Congo, 1927 pp.95-96, 1928 pp.85-86, 1930 pp.100-101, 1931 pp.102-103, 1932 p.101, 1933 pp.91-92, 1934 pp.105-106, 1935 pp.92-93, 1936 p.84, 1937 p.72, 1943 pp.96-97, 1944 p.88, 1945 pp.89-90, 1946 pp.95-96, 1947 pp.74-75, 1957 pp.84-85 [G]
Congo, Republic of the, 1961 pp.178-182, 1962 pp.180-185, 1963 pp.175-178, 1964 pp.175-178 (on events of 1963) [G]
Congo Leopoldville, 1965 pp.188-191 (on events of 1964) [G]
Congo, D.R., 1967 pp.205-206, 1968 pp.31, 194-196, 1969 pp.207-208, 1970 pp.212-213, 1971 p.221, 1972 pp.208-210 [G]
Zaire, 1973 pp.752-753, 1974 pp.658-659, 1976 pp.602-603, 1989 p.577, 1990 p.562, 1992 p.573, 1993 pp.575-576, 1994 pp.576-577 [G]
Others Article : Congo Free State, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.202-203, 1894 pp.151-155 [G]
History of the Congo, pp.15-16; the Congo pp.144-153, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]

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