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Finland Latvia
First posted in April 2002, last revised on January 4th 2011

Estonia gained independence in 1918/1920, and at this time its modern borders were established. Before, only the northern stretches of modern Estonia were refered to as Estland (Estonia), while the south was regarded part of Livland (Livonia). From 1561 to 1712, the island of Saaremaa (Ezel, Ösel) formed a separate administrative unit.
For much of its history, Estonia has been controlled by foreign ethnicities, from 1218 to 1346 by a Danish elite, from 1346 to 1880/1918 by an ethnic German elite. This pattern was repeated during the years of Soviet occupation (1940-1941) 1944-1991, when ethnic Russians took the role traditionally held by German nobles. The bulk of the population, the Estonians, for centuries had been treated as serfs, and even after their liberation in 1816, they remained socially underprivileged, a status only ended by the Land Reform of 1919.

This page attempts to deal with the history of Estonia (within its modern borders).

Estonia since 1991

Estonia 1939-1945 . 1945-1949 . 1949-1991 . . . see also USSR

Estonia 1918-1920 . 1920-1934 . 1934-1939

Estonia Gubernia 1710-1918 . . . Livland Gubernia 1710-1918 . . . see also Russian Empire
Swedish Estonia 1561-1721 . . . Swedish Livonia 1621-1721 . . . Swedish Ösel 1645-1710 . . . see also Sweden
Estonia 1561-1721 . . . Duchy of Livonia 1561-1621 . . . Danish Øsel 1560-1645 . . . see also Sweden (Estonia), Kingdom of Poland (Livonia), Denmark (Øsel)

Livonia 1525-1561
Livonia 1346-1525

Estonia 1218-1346 . . . Livonia 1199-1346 . . . Denmark
The Eastern Baltic before the Crusades (-1199)

Historical Atlas : Estonia Page

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, countries - Estonia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Estonia
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from SSEES; from Internet Archive
Links, on History from Virtual Library History
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes against Humanity; Latvia's History Commission, from MOFA Latvia
Estonian Museum Association; Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Eesti Ajaloopetajate Selts (Estonian History Teachers Association), from Euroclio
Historical Dictionary Estonica
Timelines from timelines.ws, from BBC News
Accounts of History Article History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
History, from Estonica
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich, vol.1, 1895, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods F.G. von Bunsen, Das Herzogthum Estland unter den Koönigen von Daänemark, (1877) Reprint 1973, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. Bienemann, Die Statthalterschaftszeit in Liv- und Estland (1783-1796), 1886, in German, posted on Internet Archive
H.K.H. Almquist, Sverge och Ryssland, 1595-1611 : Tvisten om Estland, förbundet mot Polen .., 1907, in Swedish, posted on Internet Archive
M. Martna, L'Esthonie; les Esthoniens et la question esthonienne, 1920, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Georg von Rauch, The Baltic States : The Years of Independence. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 1917-1940, (1970) trsl. from the German by Gerald Onn, 1974, GB
Politics Political Resources on the Web : Estonia; Governments on the WWW : Estonia; For the Record 2000 : Estonia, from UN Human Rights System
Article : Politics of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Category : Politics of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Concentration Camps Today : (Soviet) Estonia, from ATTAC
Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bilateral Relations, detailed files on the history of relations with other countries
Military Wars of Estonia, from ACED
Article : Military History of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Category : Military of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Estonian Military History, from Visit Estonia
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Estonia
Article Economy of Estonia, from Wikipedia
History of the Nordic Exchange
Raimo Pullat and Lauri Suurmaa, Probate Inventories as Sources for the Study of the History of Luxury in Estonian Towns in the Early Modern Period (18th Century), IEHC 2006
Estonia, from European Textile Network (historical sites)
Ethnography Languages of Estonia, from Ethnologue
Ethnic Minorities in Estonia, from Estonia Page (1998)
Integration through Education ? The Russian-Speaking Minority and Estonian Society, by Karen Brown
Estonia, from European Centre for Minority Issues
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Estonia
Esthonia, pp.2017-2052 in vol.3B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Estonia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category Religion in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
History of Regions History of Saaremaa (Ösel, Øsel), Hiiumaa : History (Dagö, Dagø), Harjumaa (Harrien), Virjumaa (Vironia, Wierland), Järvamaa (Jervia), Revelia, Läänemaa (Wiek), Sakala, Ugandi (Ugaunia), from Wikipedia
Counties of Estonia, Municipalities of Estonia, from www.statoids.com
Peter Wilhelm Baron von Buxhövenden, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Provinz Oesell, 1838, posted by Google Books
Local History History of Tallinn (Reval), from Wikipedia
History of Tartu (Dorpat), from Wikipedia
Article Narva, from Wikipedia
F.G. von Bunge, Die Revaler Rathslinie nebst Geschichte der Rathsverfassung und einem Anhange über Riga und Dorpat 1874, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions History of the University of Tartu, from Wikipedia
History of Tallin Stock Exchange, from The Nordic Exchange
Estonia, from Airline History
Structurae : Estonia; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Estonia
History (of Narrow-Gauge Railways in Estonia, since 1896), from Estonian Museum Railway; scroll down for English language text; Estonian Railways : History, from Railroad Development Corporation
Culture Estonian Philately and Postal History, from Estonian Philatelic Society
A Short History of Estonian Literature, from Estonian Literature Information Centre
A Brief History of the Estonian Book, by Lott / Moeldre
Article : Music of Estonia : History, from Wikipedia
Film, from Estonica
Architecture, from Estonica
Russian Culture in Estonia
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
List of Estonians, from Wikipedia
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Estonia
Category Disasters in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Articles Estonia at the Olympics, Football in Estonia, Estonia National Ice Hockey Team, from Wikipedia
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive
Ernest Fromme, The republic of Esthonia and private property, 1922, posted on Internet Archive
A. Baron von Heyking, The main issues confronting the minorities of Latvia and Eesti, 1922, posted on Internet Archive

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Estonia, from Wikipedia; Liste der deutschen Botschafter in Tallinn, from Wikipedia German edition; List of Soviet and Russian Ambassadors to Estonia
Article : U.S. Ambassador to Estonia, from Wikipedia
Heads of Canadian Legation / Embassy in Tallinn (since 1993), from MOFA Canada
Chinese Ambassadors to Estonia, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Statistics Estonia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Estonia, from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Historical Abortion Statistics - Estonia, from Johnston's Archive
P.A.F.K. Possart, Statistik und Geographie des Gouvernements Esthland , 1846, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Election Results from Psephos (since 1999); from IFES Election Guide (since 1998); from Electoral Geography 2.0 (since 1992)
Elections and Electoral Systems around the world : Estonia, from Area Studies, at Keele
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazette Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Estonia
Riigi Teataja 2002-2012
Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Estonia
Periodika, from Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa, German language historical periodicals from Central and Eastern Europe
Specific Newspapers Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Estonia", search all issues; 138 Estonia articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks - Estonia Entries
Films on History/Society Estonia Film Archives linked by National Film Preservation Board (U.S.)
Filmarchives Online (Europe-wide); Estonian Film Archives
Article : Cinema of Estonia, from Wikipedia
Estonia, from Cinema of the World
List of Estonian Films, from Wikipedia; Estonia Film, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
7is7, Photos of Estonia
Systematic Collections
Herder-Institut : Bildarchiv
P.E. Damier, Wappen-buch sämmtlicher zur ehstländischen Adelsmatrikel gehöriger Familien, 1837, posted on Internet Archive
Eric Hammerin, Bildbank Tallinn
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Universal Collections
Items on Estonia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports; scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Estonia
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
Search CIA Released Documents for Estonia
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, IA
Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Estonia
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Estonia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Estonia, from ILO, 31 docs. since 1921
Internet Law Library : Estonia
Verfassungen der Republik Estland (Constitutions of the Republic of Estonia), from verfassungen.de, in German
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Estonia
Estonia, pp.602-657 in vol.7 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Estonia
F.G. von Bunge, Liv-, Est- und Kurländisches Urkundenbuch und Regesten vol.II : 1301-1367, 1855, vol.III : supplements, 1368-1393, 1857, vol.VI : supplements 1875, 2nd Series vol.1 : 1495-1500, 1900, 2nd Series vol.2 : 1501-1505, 1905, posted on Internet Archive
Monumenta Livoniae Antiqua. Sammlung von Chroniken, Berichten, Urkunden und andern schriftlichen Denkmälern und Aufsätzen, welche zur Erläterung der Geschichte Liv-, Ehst- und Kurland's dienen, vol.1 1835, vol.2 1839, vol.3 1840, vol.4 1844, vol.5 1847, posted on Internet Archive
Making the History of 1989 : Estonia
Individual Documents
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO, National Mapping Agencies : Estonia : Riigi Maa-amet - Estonian Land Board, Tallinn
collections click here
NLE Cartography Collection, Old City Maps, Old geographical maps
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
David Rumsey Historical Map Collection : Estonia
Estonia Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Estonia, Maps of the History of Estonia, Wikimedia Commons
Discus Media, The 1900 Collection, Maps of Yesteryear, Estonia
Estonia, hindsight Europe in the Year 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, euratlas
Estonia, Contemporary Estonia 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary City Panoramas 19th Century, from Historic Maps, Reval 1866
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Estonia, Narva, Oesel, Pernau, Reval (Tallinn, Revel), Yuriev (Tartu, Dorpat), from EB 1911
Articles Esthland, Dagö, Ösel, Arensburg, Dorpat, Narwa, Pernau, Reval, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Esthonia, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Narwa, Pernau, Reval, posted by DTBSWS
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Reval, posted by DTBSWS
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides K. Baedeker, La Russie: manuel du voyageur, 1897, 1902, in French, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, Russland : Handbuch für Reisende, 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, St. Petersburg und Umgebung: Handbuch für Reisende 1901, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Estonian Historical Archives, English language page
National Archives of Estonia, page in Estonian
Estonian Cultural History Archives
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Estonia, from Consilium Europa
Estonian Archives in the United States, at Immigration History Research Center, Univ. of Minnesota
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Estonian War Museum
Estonian Broadcasting Museum
Monuments Category : Monuments and Memorials in Estonia, from Wikipedia
Tentative List : Estonia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Estonia; from UNESCO World Heritage
Windmills in Estonia, from Windmill World
Libraries Libraries in Estonia, from LibDex, 19 entries
National Library of Estonia
History of the Estonian National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coat of Arms of Estland (Reval) Gubernia, from Wikimedia Commons
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Estonia, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Estonia Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery
Stamps Estonia Stamps 1918, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Estonia survey of bibliographies National Bibliography of Estonia, from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University Library
bibliographic database Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography); Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies)
Bibliographieportal zur Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas - LitDok Ostmitteleuropa
general bibliographies
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Estonia Bibliography, from European Centre of Minority Issues
serial publications Publikationen, from IKGN
Estonian Historical Archives, Publications
general bibliographies
Estonia entries
Northern Crusades Bibliography, from Crusades Encyclopedia
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
on Estonia National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals Links Digiteeritud eesti ajalehed (Digitised Estonian Periodicals, 1821-1944)
full text online Estonian Journal of Archaeology, years 2000-2006 / vols. 4-10 online
Acta Historica Tallinensia, years 2000-2006 / vols.4-10 online
Jahrbücher für die Geschichte Osteuropas 1936-2006, BSB
Folklore 1996-
Historiography Article : Estonian Historiography, by T.U. Raun, pp.294-295, in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts on Eastern Europe Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
on Estonia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Specific Topics Rein Taagepera, Estonia and the Estonians, pp.75-93 in : Zev Katz et al. (ed.), Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities, NY : The Free Press 1975 [G]
Estonia, pp.96-98, in : Derek H. Aldcroft, Europe's Third World. The European Periphery in the Interwar Years. Leicester : UP 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.09724 A357e
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004

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