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First posted on July 8th 2002, last revised on January 4th 2011

History prior to the Establishment of the Republic of Poland
The Principality of Poland emerged in the 10th century, and with the introduction of Christianity, was elevated to the Kingdom of Poland. The Piast Dynasty ruled Poland until the early 14th century. A brief period of Angevin rule was followed by the Jagiellon Dynasty (1386), under which the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were first joined in Dynastic Union, and in the Union of Lublin 1569 merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita, 1569-1795). It was a multiethnic state, its population consisting of Catholic Poles and Lithuanians, Orthodox (later Russian Rite Catholic) Belarussians and Ukrainians, as well as other groups. This commonwealth also was referred to as a Nobles' Republic; Poland-Lithuania was an elective monarchy, did not go through the phase of Absolutism; in the later 18th century the Commonwealth was partitioned by its neighbours Prussia, Austria and Russia. From 1807 to 1813 a Polish state in form of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw existed, a staunch ally of Napoleon. The Vienna Congress of 1815 implemented another Polish partition; now Congress Poland was joined with the Russian Empire in Dynastic Union; The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was one of the many lands of the Emperor of Austria; the Grand Duchy of Posen was joined in Dynastic Union with the Kingdom of Prussia. Until 1846 the Republic of Cracow was a separate state.

Republic of Poland
Following World War I the Republic of Poland was established, which included the western parts of modern Belarus and Ukraine. This Republic was again partitioned by Germany and the USSR in 1939. In 1944-1945 the Republic of Poland was recreated in a different shape. The Polish territory annexed by the USSR in 1939 (the bulk of the population being Belarussian and Ukrainian) remained Soviet territory; instead Poland was compensated by the annexation of large stretches of territory hitherto being part of Prussia / Germany. The German population of these areas was expelled; the ethnic Polish population from the Polish territory annexed by the USSR in 1939 repatriated to Poland.
In 1952 the People's Republic of Poland was proclaimed; in 1990 it was renamed Republic of Poland.

Poland since 1990 . Poland 1981-1990 . Poland 1969-1981 . Poland 1948-1969 . Poland 1945-1948 . Poland in World War II . Poland between the Wars . Poland in World War I

History of the Polish Exile

Historical Atlas, Poland Page
List of Wars, Poland Page

Students' Paper : Kim, Jae Hee, History of Polish-Russian/Soviet Relations (2009)
Students' Paper : Song, Yong-hyun, 19th Century Paris, Center of Exiles (2007)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook Country - Poland
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Poland
historical Poland, Its People, its Society, its Culture (1958), posted on Internet Archive
A.L. Strong, I Saw the New Poland (1946), posted on Internet Archive
A. Syski, The United States of Poland (1919), posted on Internet Archive
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Poland, from Wikipedia
Links, on History from Virtual Library History : Polish History Index; from Virtual Library Labour History; from Virtual Library Women's History; from Virtual Library Economic and Business History
from KODEKS; as of June 2008 exclusively on Kashubia
Category : History of Poland, from Wikipedia
European History Primary Sources : Poland, from Virtual Library History
Organizations Article : Polish Historical Society, from Wikipedia
Polish Numismatic Society
Archaeology in Poland, click : Institutions
The Polish Institute and Sikorsky Museum, UK
Stowarzyszenie Nauczycieli Historii, from Euroclio
Polish Academy of Sciences, Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History
Jewish Historical Institute, Poland
Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies
Institute of National Remembrance. Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation
Polish-American Historical Association
Canadian-Polish Research Institute
Georg-Eckert-Institut : German-Polish Textbook Commission
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws, from BBC News
Category : Years in Poland, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General Accounts A Brief History of Poland, from Polonia Today; The History of Poland, by Mieczyslaw Kasprzyk; Political History of Poland, by F. Kobylarz
Article History of Poland, from Wikipedia
Specific Periods Articles : Second Polish Republic, History of Poland 1939-1945, History of Poland 1945-1989, from Wikipedia
M. Machray, The Poland of Pilsudski (1936), posted on Internet Archive
G. Humphrey, Pilsudski - Builder of Poland (1936), posted on Internet Archive
Politics general Political Resources on the Net : Poland; Governments on the WWW : Poland; For the Record 2000 : Poland, from UN Human Rights System; Article Politics of Poland, from Wikipedia
The History of the Communist Movement in Poland .. by Zbigniew Wiktor
Foreign Policy S. Askenazy, W.J. Rose, Dantzig & Poland (1921), posted on Internet Archive
W. Lutoslawski, Bolshevism and Poland (1919), posted on Internet Archive
R. Umaiastowski, Russia, Poland and Great Britain 1941-1945 (1946), posted on Internet Archive
Military see here
Category : Military History of Poland, from Wikipedia
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Poland, from ODM
Piotr H. Rosicki, Case Studies : The Katyn Massacres of 1940, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Poland
Article Economy of Poland, from Wikipedia
Polish state finance, 1576-1717, from ESFDB
Economic History and Economy of Poland, by Thayer Watkins; Polish Economic History, from OK Economics
The History of the Warsaw Stock Exchange
Articles Wieliczka Salt Mine, from Wikipedia; Mining in Poland, from Global Info Mine; Coal Mining in Upper Silesia & Heavy Industry under Communism, from Polish Site
History of Stocznia Gdansk (shipyard)
Polish Pub Guide : Beer - Brewing Industry - History, from European Beer Guide; The History of Polish Vodka : Its Origin, Name and Distillation, by Marian Hanik
A History of the Calisia Piano Maker (Kalisz), from UK Piano Page
Article Polski Fiat 125p, from Wikipedia
Janusz K. Tanas, Perspective of Polish Business : a Historical Snapshot (2003)
Poland, from European Textile Network (lists historical sites)
J. Frejlich, Fundamental conditions of the economic independence of Poland (1918), posted on Internet Archive
Social History Th. Bach, Education in Poland (1923), posted on Internet Archive
Ethnography Languages of Poland (12), from Ethnologue
Article Kashubians, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Poland
F. Bujak, The Jewish Question in Poland (1919), posted on Internet Archive
A.L. Goodhart, Poland and the Minority Races (1920), posted on Internet Archive
I. Cohen, A Report on the Pogroms in Poland (1919), posted on Internet Archive
Article : Armenians in Poland, from Wikipedia
Tatars : Poland's Muslim Minority, from Krakow Post 2007
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Poland, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Poland, from Jewish Virtual Library; Poland, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category Religion in Poland, from Wikipedia
Panewniki Franciskanie (Polish language page of the Franciscan Order, Province Polonia); Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Polonia
E. Kneifel, Geschichte der Evangelisch-Augsburgischen Kirche in Polen
Article : Armenians in Poland, from Wikipedia
Tatars : Poland's Muslim Minority, from Krakow Post 2007
History of Regions Articles Silesia : History; History of Pomerania; West Prussia : History; Masovia; ; Lesser Poland; Greater Poland; Kuyavia (Kujawien); Pomerelia, from Wikipedia
Voivodships, Counties of Poland, from www.statoids.com
Local History History of Warsaw, from e-warsaw, from Wikipedia
History of Cracow (Krakow), from Wikipedia
History of Wroclaw (Breslau), from Wroclaw Life, from Wikipedia
History of Gdansk (Danzig) see at this site
History of Szczecin (Stettin), from Wikipedia
History of Torun (Thorn), from Wikipedia
History of Poznan, from Wikipedia
History of Lublin, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Broadcasting in Poland, from The Broadcast Archive; Article Radio Polonia, Telewizja Polska, from Wikipedia
History of the University of Krakow, from Wikipedia
History of Rail Transport in Poland, from Wikipedia
List of Waterways : Poland, from Wikipedia
Poland, from Airline History
Structurae : Poland; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Poland
Poland Index, from Academic Corporations
Culture Article Polish Language : History, from Wikipedia
Article Polish Literature from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911 edition; Virtual Library of Polish Literature; Polish Literature, links from Slavophilia
Article Cinema of Poland, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Poles, from Wikipedia; Biographies of Polish Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German
Others Brier, Robert (2002) : Der polnische "Westgedanke" nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg (1944-1950). (The Polish "Perception of the West" after WW II), posted by Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Osteuropa, in German
Hölzlwimmer, Laura (2007) : "In wahrer Sorge um das Wohl des Vaterlandes". Die Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Staat und katholischer Kirche im stalinistischen Polen als öffentlich ausgetragene Konkurrenz um Vertrauen. ("With Genuine Concern for the Well-Being of the Fatherland". The Confrontations between State and Catholic Church in Stalinist Poland as a Contest for Trust, Conducted in Public), posted by Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Osteuropa, in German
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Poland
Freemasonry in Russia and Poland, by Ernest Friedrichs (1908)
Category : Disasters in Poland, from Wikipedia
Article Poland at the Olympics, Category Sport in Poland, Football in Poland, from Wikipedia
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Poland, from Wikipedia; Liste chronologique des ambassadeurs de France en Pologne, from Ambafrance; Liste der deutschen Botschafter : Warschau, from Wikipedia German edition (1931- )
Article : United States Ambassadors to Poland (1922-), from Wikipedia
Embajadores de Mexico en Polonia, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Chinese Ambassadors to Poland, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Statistical Office of Poland
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Poland, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Historical Abortion Statistics - Poland, from Johnston's Archive
Election Results from Psephos (since 1990); from IFES Election Guide; from Electoral Geography 2.0 (since 1989)
Poland, from Elections and Electoral Systems (links)
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Flare : Union List of Official Gazettes : Poland
Dziennik Ustaw Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 1995-2012
Monitor Polski 1995-2012
Rzadowe Centrum Legislaci, Monitor Polski 1946-
Rzadowe Centrum Legislaci, Dziennik Ustaw Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 1918-
Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Poland
e-Kolekcja Czasopism Polskich, 27 Polish journals and newspapers published in the 19th and (early) 20th century [up to 1980]
Periodika, from Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa, German language historical periodicals from Central and Eastern Europe
Specific Newspapers Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Poland", search all issues; 1970 Poland articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks - Poland Entries
Propaganda Films George C. Marshall Motion Pictures
Films on History/Society Poland Film Archives linked by National Film Preservation Board (U.S.)
Filmarchives Online (Europe-wide); National Digital Archive (Poland), Filmoteca Narodowa
Article : Cinema of Poland, from Wikipedia
Historical Movies by Nation : Poland (previous site has more Swedish history movies than this one)
Poland, from Cinema of the World
List of Polish Films, from Wikipedia; Poland Film, from IMDb
Radio National Digital Archives of Poland, has Polish Broadcasting Section of 'Radio Free Europe'.
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
National Digital Archives of Poland, has photo collection
Systematic Collections
Herder-Institut : Bildarchiv
Bildarchiv Ostpreussen
J. Mayfield, Poland's resistance against the Nazis' General Government in pictures
Illustrated History : Relive the Times : Germany Invades Poland : September 1939 : In Images
Illustrated History : Relive the Times : Poland under German Occupation and Warsaw Ghetto
Holocaust Research Project, Image Gallery
Accidental Collections Wikipedia : Category : Polish Historical Images
Wikimedia Commons : Poland
Universal Collections
Items on Poland
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Poland
Archival Deposits Poland Documents, from Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Register of the Commission for Polish Relief Records, 1939-1949, at Hoover Institution
Hoover Institution, scroll down for Poland
Search CIA Released Documents for Poland
Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Poland
Monthly Reports about the Development in Poland 1955-1965, from Vifa Ost
Nationaalarchief (NL) : Inventaris van het archief van het Gezantschap in Polen (Warschau), (1913) 1945-1954 (1955)
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Poland, from ILO, 84 docs. since 1934
Internet Law Library : Poland
Verfassungen Polens (Constitutions of Poland), from Verfassungen.eu, in German
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Category : Treaties of Poland, from Wikipedia
Consular Reports Foreign Relations of the United States 1851-1958/1960
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Poland
Internet Museum of the Polish People's Republic
Foreign Office (British) : Peace Handbooks (1919-1920), posted on Internet Archive; v. 8. Poland and Finland, no. 43-48
FOIA Electronic Reading Room; here description of their Fonds pertaining to Poland, from European History Primary Sources, Virtual Library History
Skarby Dziedzictwa Narodowego (Treasures of National Heritage)
Making the History of 1989 : Poland
Wilson Center Digital Archives : 1956 Polish and Hungarian Crises, 1980-1981 Polish Crisis
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO, National Mapping Agencies : Poland : Centralny Osrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej, Warszawa
collections click here
E. Romer, Geograficzno-Statystyczny Atlas Polski 1921 (Romer's Atlas of Poland, 2nd edition), maproom
Lukasz Bielecki's Historical Maps of Poland, Historical Maps of Poland (Library of Congress Country Studies), from Poland in the Classroom
David Rumsey Map Collection : Poland
Poland Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Poland, Maps of the History of Poland, Wikimedia Commons
Herder-Institut, Topographische Kartenwerke, click P for Polen
Poland, hindsight Europe in the Year 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, euratlas
Poland, contemporary Poland 1904, 1906, 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary Discus Media : The 1900 Collection. Maps of Yesteryear, Poland
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Poland, Breslau, Byelostok, Cracow, Danzig, Elbing, Kattowitz, Liegnitz, Lodz, Lublin, Posen, Stettin, Thorn, Warsaw, from EB 1911
Article Polen, Beuthen, Bialystok, Breslau, Danzig, Elbing, Gleiwitz, Gnesen, Kattowitz, Krakau, Liegnitz, Lodz, Lublin, Posen, Stettin, Thorn, Tschenstochow Warschau, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Cracow, Danzig, Galicia, Posen, Silesia, Warsaw, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Article Poland, Gnesen-Posen, Cracow, Kielce, Breslau, Tarnow, Plock, Culm, Ermland, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Poland, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 43 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Poland, 191 entries
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Poland, from Consilium Europa
State Archives in Poland
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Poland, from Wikipedia
ICOM : Museums in Poland
Musea Museum Websites Memorial and Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau
National Museum in Krakow
Historical Museum of Warsaw
Museums in Wroclaw
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Poland, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Poland), Tentative Lists : Poland
Poland Index, from Showcaves, has historical mines
Libraries Libraries in Poland, from LibDex, 31 entries
History of the Polish National Library, from The European Library
Article : National Library of Poland, from Wikipedia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Poland, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Currency Museum
Catalog of Polish Banknotes, site in Polish/German
Poland Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery
Stamps Rare Poland, Polish Levant, Polish States Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Poland Stamps 1860-1918, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Poland survey of bibliographies Poland : Bibliography of Bibliography, from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University Library
bibliographic database Bibliografia Historii Polskiej
EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies)
Bibliographieportal zur Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas - LitDok Ostmitteleuropa
general bibliographies pp.233-338 in G.Sanford, A. Gozdecka-Sanford, Historical Dictionary of Poland, Scarecrow 1994, Print : KMLA Library R 943.6 S224h
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Books on Genocide and Related Topics in Polish, from Prevent Genocide
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jewish Resistance Library, Bibliography - Poland
serial publications Polish Academy of Sciences, Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History, Publishing Activities
Institute of National Remembrance, Publications
The Head Office of the State Archives, Poland : Monographs and other publications, Periodicals and Editorial Series
Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies : Polin
Polish-American Historical Association Books
Canadian-Polish Research Institute, Publications
general bibliographies
Poland entries
The Poles, no.2005-2555 in R.J. Kerner, Slavic Europe; a selected bibliography in the Western European languages, comprising history, languages and literatures, 1918, IA
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Poland Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
National Digital Library, Poland
Kujawsko-Pomorska Digital Library, Silesian Digital Library, Lower Silesian Digital Library, Polish Federation of Digital Libraries
Online Journals full text online Jahrbücher für die Geschichte Osteuropas 1936-2006, BSB
Revue des Etudes Slaves 1921-2005, Persee
Table of Contents
Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 1952-, in German
Polish-American Historical Association, Polish-American Studies
Historiography Article : Polish Historiography, by E. Domanska, pp.720-723, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
On Central, Eastern Europe Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
General Accounts M.B. Biskupski, The History of Poland, Westport : Greenwood 2000, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 943.8 B622t
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Poland, an illustrated History, NY : Hippocrene 2000, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 943.8 P746p
Article Poland, in Encyclopædia Britannica, Macropædia, Vol.25 pp.930-957; KMLA Lib. Call Sign
R 032 B862n v.25
Enno Meyer, Grundzüge der Geschichte Polens (Main Features of Polish History), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft 1977 [G]
Manfred Hellmann, Daten der Polnischen Geschichte (Dates in Polish History), München : dtv 1985 [G]
Norman Davies, Heart of Europe. A Short History of Poland, Oxford : UP (1984) 1986 [G]
Norman Davies, God's Playground. A History of Poland, Vol.II : 1795 to the Present, NY : Columbia UP revised edition (1979) 2005, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 943.8 D255g
Specific Topics Eric P. Kelly, The Land and People of Poland, Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott, (1943) revised ed. 1964 [G]
R.F. Leslie (ed.), The History of Poland since 1863, Cambridge : UP (1980) 1989 [G]
Poland, pp.106-116, in : Derek H. Aldcroft, Europe's Third World. The European Periphery in the Interwar Years. Leicester : UP 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.09724 A357e
Padraic Kennedy, Rebuilding Poland. Workers and Communists 1945-1950, Ithaca etc.: Cornell UP 1997, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 38.9438 K36r
Richard C. Lukas, Forgotten Holocaust. The Poles under German Occupation 1939-1944, NY : Hppocrene (1990) revised edition 2005, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.53 L955f
Local, Regional History Zdzislaw Zygulski, Cracow, an Illustrated History, NY : Hippocrene 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 943.86 Z99c
Historical Atlas W. Czaplinski, T. Ladogorski, The Historical Atlas of Poland, Wroclaw : State Cartographic Publishers 1986 [G]
Historical Dictionary George Sanford, Adriana Gozdecka-Sanford, Historical Dictionary of Poland, Scarecrow 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 943.6 S224h

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