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Prussia Russian Empire
First posted on September 5th 2010

The Union of Lublin 1569 merged the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Rzeczpospolita Obijga Narodow or the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It also included the Duchy of Livonia (which had merged with Lithuania in 1566), the Duchy of Courland, Royal Prussia (since 1466 to Poland) and the Duchy in Prussia (since 1525).
In 1621 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthy ceded Livonia to Sweden. In 1660 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth renounced its sovereignty over the Duchy in Prussia (largely coinciding with the later East Prussia).
In the course of the Polish Partitions (1772, 1793 and 1795) the Polish state was annexed by its neighbours, the Russian Empire, Austria and Prussia. Napoleon temporarily restored a Polish state, the Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1813), but the Vienna Congress confirmed the Polish Partitions, leaving only the tiny Republic of Cracow (1815-1846) as an independent Polish state.
For the history of 19th century regions formerly part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, see Livland Gubernia, Courland, Vitebsk Gubernia, Kovno Gubernia, Grodno Gubernia, Vilna Gubernia, Minsk Gubernia, Mogilev Gubernia, Volhynia Gubernia, Podolia Gubernia, Kiev Gubernia (all to the Russian Empire), Congress Poland (in dynastic union with, and dependent of the Russian Empire), Galicia (to Austria (-1866) respectively Austria-Hungary), West Prussia and Posen (Poznan), to Prussia (-1871) respectively the German Empire (1871-1918).
Also of importance : the History of the Polish Exile

Historical Atlas, Poland Page
List of Wars, Poland Page

Students' Paper : Kim, Jae Hee, History of Polish-Russian/Soviet Relations (2009)

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Country Profiles current Article Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from Wikipedia
historical M. Kromer, Polonia siue de sitv popvlis, moribvs, magistratibvs et repvblica regni, 1577, in Latin, GB
A. Gwagnin, K. Warszewicki, Rervm Polonicarvm Tomi tres, 1584, in Latin, GB
S. Krysztanowicz, Brevis Descriptio Statuum Regni Poloniae, 1606, in Latin, GB
M. Kramer, Beschreibung des Königreichs Polen, 1741, GB
J. Lund, Letters concerning the present state of Poland, 1773, GB
Links, on History from Virtual Library History
Categories History of Poland 1569-1795, History of Lithuania 1569-1795, from Wikipedia
Internet Museum of the Polish People's Republic
Organizations Polish Academy of Sciences, Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History, Institute of Archeology and Ethnology
The Head Office of the State Archives, Poland
Article : Polish Historical Society, from Wikipedia
The Immanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute; Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies
Georg-Eckert-Institut : German-Polish Textbook Commission
Herder0Institut (Marburg, Germany)
Australian Polish Historical Society; Polish American Historical Association (PAHA)
Historical Dictionaries YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe
Timelines Timeline, from from timelines.ws
Category : Years in Poland, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General Accounts modern A Brief History of Poland, from Polonia Today; The History of Poland, by Mieczyslaw Kasprzyk; Political History of Poland, by F. Kobylarz
historical Jan Herburt z Fulsteina, Chronica sive historiae Polonicae compendiosa, ac per certa librorum capita, 1571, in Latin, GB
Histoire des Rois de Pologne, vol.1, 1733, vol.2, 1733, vol.3, 1733, vol.3, 2nd ed. 1748, in French, GB
Pierre-Joseph de la Pimpie Solignac, Histoire generale de Pologne vol.1, 1750, vol.2, 1747, vol.3, 1751, vol.4, 1750, vol.5, 1750, vol.6, 1780, in French, GB
F.A. Schmid, Abrege chronologique de l'histoire de Pologne, 1763, in French, GB
St. Jones, The history of Poland: from its origin as a nation to the commencement of the year 1795, 1795, GB
S.A. Dunham, The History of Poland, 1831, GB
J. Fletcher, The history of Poland: from the earliest period to the present time, 1839, GB
A Polish Exile, Outline of the history of Poland: from the earliest period to the present time, 1840, GB
T.A. Galecki, A sketch of the history of Poland, 1842, GB
Specific Periods P. Buccio, Le coronationi di Polonia, et di Francia, del Christianiss. Re Henrico III, 1576, in Latin, GB
Desfontaines, The history of the revolutions of Poland, 1736, GB
Articles : Union of Lublin 1569, Polish Partitions 1772, 1793, 1795, from Wikipedia
Jean-Baptiste Desroches de Parthenay, The history of Poland under Augustus II, 1734, GB
Desfontaines, The history of the revolutions of Poland, 1736, GB
P. Joubert, Histoire des revolutions de Pologne, vol.1, 1775, vol.2, 1775, in French, GB
G.F. Coyer, Histoire de Jean Sobieski, roi de Pologne, vol.1, 1761, vol.2, 1761, vol.3, 1762, in French, GB
Jean Claude Hippolyte Méhee de la Touche, Histoire de la pretendue revolution de Pologne : avec un examen de la nouvelle constitution, 1792, in French, GB
Ph. de Chantillon, Histoire de Stanislas I. roi de Pologne, vol.1, 1740, in French, GB
Jean Baptiste Desroches de Parthenay, Histoire de Pologne sous le Regne d'Auguste II, vol.1, 1733, vol.3, 1734, vol.4, 1734, in French, GB
Politics general Articles : Golden Liberty, General Sejm, Offices in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Administrative Division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from Wikipedia
Foreign Policy Zmuda, Marius (2003) : Identität und Abgrenzung. Die polnische "Szlachta" auf der Suche nach ihrem Platz in Europa. 1648 - 1668. (Identity and Distantiation. The Polish "Szlachta" Searching for her Place in Europe, 1648-1668). posted by Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Osteuropa, in German
Military modern account click here
Polish Renaissance Warfare 1450-1699, by S.A. Jasinski
Articles : List of Wars Involving Poland, Northern Seven Years War (1563-1570), Danzig Rebellion (1575-1577), Livonian War 1558-1583 / Livonian Campaign of Stephen Bathory (1577-1582), War of the Polish Succession 1587-1588, Kosinski Uprising (1591-1593), Moldavian Magnate Wars (1593-1617, 1618-1620, 1620-1621), War against Sigismund 1598-1599, Polish-Swedish War 1600-1611, Polish-Muscovite War 1605-1618, De la Gardie Campaign (1609-1610), Polish-Swedish War 1617-1618, Polish-Ottoman War 1620-1621, Polish-Swedish War 1621-1625, Polish-Swedish War 1626-1629, Smolensk War 1632-1634, Polish-Ottoman War 1633-1634, Russo-Polish War 1654-1677, Second Northern War / Deluge (history) 1655-1660, Polish-Cossack-Tatar War 1666-1671, Polish-Ottoman War 1672-1676, Polish-Ottoman War 1683-1699, Great Northern War 1700-1721, War of the Polish Succession 1733-1738, Polish-Russian War 1792, from Wikipedia
P. Chevalier, Histoire de la guerre des Cosaques contre la Pologne, 1688, in French, GB
historical account D. Caminer, Geschichte des gegenwärtigen Kriegs zwischen Russland, Polen und der Ottomanischen Pforte, 1771, in German, GB
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Poland
Grzegorz Wojtowicz, The Origin and History of the Polish Money, Part 1
Ewa Manikowska, The Culture of Gifts : The Role and Value of Luxury Gifts at an 18th Century Court, IEHC 2006
Windmills in Poland, from Windmill World
Article : Wielicka Salt Mine, from Wikipedia; from Showcaves
Gdansk, the past and present of the town and port, from Port Gdansk
Social History Article : Szlachta, from Wikipedia
Ethnography Oskar Halecki, Das Nationalitätenproblem im alten Polen (1916, in German), posted on Internet Archive
R.F. Kaindl, Polen: Mit einem geschichtlichen Überblick über die Polnisch-ruthenische Frage (1917, in German), posted on Internet Archive
Religion Article : Union of Brest, from Wikipedia
Poland Church History, from Family Search Research Wiki
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Poland, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Poland, from Jewish Virtual Library
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Gniezno, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Krakow, Diocese of Pelplin (Kulm), Diocese of Plock, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Poznan, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Przemysl, Diocese of Tarnow (Tyniec), Metropolitan Archdiocese of Warmia, Diocese of Wloclawek, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lviv, Metropolitan Archdiocese of Vilnius, from GCatholic
Protestantism in Poland and Bohemia, by J.A. Wylie, (Book 3 ch.19 of J.A. Wylie's History of Protestantism, 1878)
P. Wilczek, Jesuits in Poland according to A.F. Pollard (1892); Towarzystwo Jezusowe w Polsce (Jesuit Order, in Polish); Jesuici Serwis Krakowski
Panewniki Franciskanie (Polish language page of the Franciscan Order, Province Polonia); Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Polonia
Province of Poland, from Order of Saint Augustine
Search OSB (Order of Saint Benedict) for Poland
From the Dominican Friars in Poland, from Dominican History
Chr.G. von Friese, Kirchengeschichte des Königreichs Polen, 1786, in German, GB
E. Kneifel, Geschichte der Evangelisch-Augsburgischen Kirche in Polen
History of Regions Category Polish Historical Regions, from Wikipedia
Voivodeships of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569-1795, from Wikipedia
Local History Articles Czestochowa : History, History of Krakow, Gniezno : History, Lublin : History, History of Lviv (Lvov, Lemberg, Leopolis), History of Minsk, History of Poznan (Posen), Torun : History (Thorn), History of Vilnius (Wilno, Wilna), History of Warsaw, from Wikipedia
Gdansk, the past and present of the town and port, from Port Gdansk
Institutions Article : General Sejm (Sejm Walny), from Wikipedia
Culture Article Polish Literature from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911 edition; Virtual Library of Polish Literature; Polish Literature, links from Slavophilia
Biographies List of Polish Monarchs, from Wikipedia
Biographies of Polish Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); Poland and the Baltics, from Regnal Chronologies
Staatskalender Königl. Poln. Khurfürstl. und Sächsischer Hof und Staats Kalender 1735, in German, GB
Lists of Ambassadors Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland (1763-1794), from Wikipedia; more detailed list from Wikipedia Polish Edition
List of Ambassadors from Poland to Russia, from Wikipedia; more detailed list from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Francuscy ambasadorzy w Polsce (French ambassadors to Poland), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy we Francji, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Austriaccy ambasadorzy w Polsce (Austrian Ambassadors), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy w Austrii, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Brytyjscy ambasadorzy w Polsce (British Ambassadors), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy w Wielkiej Brytanii, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Pruscy ambasadorzy w Polsce (Prussian Ambassadors), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy w Prusach, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Szwedzcy ambasadorzy w Polsce (Swedish Ambassadors), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Kategoria:Weneccy ambasadorzy w Polsce (Venetian Ambassadors), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy w Turcji, from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Polscy ambasadorzy we Wloszech (to Italian States), from Wikipedia Polish Edition
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Gniezno and of Primates of Poland, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops and Archbishops of Krakow, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Poznan, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Warmia, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Culm (Chelmno), from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Vilnius, from Wikipedia
List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Ukraine, from Wikipedia
Economic Data Polish state finance, 1576-1717, from ESFDB
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Bildkatalog Herder-Institut Marburg
Archival Deposits Nationaalarchief (NL) : Inventaris van de archieven van de Legaties in Zweden, Pruisen, Polen en Saksen, 1674-1810
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Category : Treaties of Poland, from Wikipedia
E. Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty, Showing the Various Political and Territorial Changes which Have Taken Place since the General Peace of 1814, vol.1 1875, vol.2 1875, vol.3 1875, posted on Internet Archive
K. Martens, Recueil manuel et pratique de traites, conventions et autres actes diplomatiques, : sur lesquels sont etablis les relations et les rapports existant aujourd'hui entre les divers etats souvernains du globe, depuis l'annee 1760 jusqu'a l'epoque actuelle, vol.1, 1846, vol.2, on 1788, 1846, vol.3, 1846, vol.4, on 1826 1846, vol.5, on 1839 1849, vol.6, on 1840 1856, vol.7, on 1852 1857, 2nd ser. vol.1 1885, posted on Internet Archive
F. Murhard, Nouveau Recueil General de Traites, Conventions et autres Transactions Remarquables, vol.1 1843, vol.2, on 1841, 1844, vol.3, on 1842, 1845, vol.4, 1846, vol.5 1847, vol.9, on 1846, suppl. 1841-1845, 1852, vol.10, on 1847, 1852, vol.12, on 1848, 1854, vol.13, 1855, vol.14 1856, vol.15 1857, vol.16 1860, vol.17, 1861, vol.18, 1873, vol.4, on 1817-1842, 1843, ? posted on Internet Archive
G.F. Martens, Recueil de traites d'alliance, de paix, de treve ... et plusieurs autres actes servant aa la connoissance des relations etrangeres de puissances et etats de l'Europe ... depuis 1761 jusqu'a present , vol.3 : 1784-1788, 1818, vol.4, 1818, vol.5 : 1791-1795, 1826, vol.6 : 1795-1799, 1829, vol.7 : 1800-1803, 1831, vol.8 : 1803-1808, 1835, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Table General Chronologique et Alphabetique du Recueil des Traites, Conventions et Transactions des Puissances de l'Europe et s'autres Parties du Globe ... vol.1 1837 (garbed scan), vol.1 1838, vol.2 1843, posted on Internet Archive
M. Tetot, Repertoire des Traites de Paix, de Commerce, d'Alliance etc., Conventions et autres Actes conclus entre tous les Puissances du Globe, principalement depuis la Paix de Westphalie jusqu'a notre jours, I : Tableau Chronologique 1493-1866, 1866, posted on Internet Archive
J.L. Klüber, Acten des Wiener Congresses in den Jahren 1814 und 1815, vol.1 2nd ed. 1819, vol.2 1815, vol.3 1815, vol.4 2nd ed. 1832, vol.5 2nd ed. 1833, vol.6 2nd ed. 1836, vol.7 1817, vol.8 1819, vol.9, 1835, in German, posted by Google Books
British and Foreign State Papers 1812-1814 I, 1841, 1812-1814 II, 1841, 1814-1815, 1839, 1815-1816, 1838, 1816-1817, 1838, 1817-1818, 1837, 1818-1819, 1835, 1819-1820, 1834, 1820-1821, 1830, 1820-1821, 1861, 1821-1822, 1829, 1821-1823, 1851, 1822-1823, 1828, 1822-1823, 1850, 1823-1824, 1843, 1824-1825, 1846, 1825-1826, 1848, 1826-1827, 1828, 1827-1828, 1829, 1828-1829, 1832, 1829-1830, 1832, 1830-1831, 1833, 1832-1833, 1836, General List, vols.1-20, I, 1842, 1834-1835, 1852, 1836-1837, 1853, 1838-1839, 1856, 1840-1841, 1857, 1841-1842, 1858, 1842-1843, 1858, 1843-1844, 1859, 1844-1845, 1859, 1845-1846, 1860, 1848-1849, 1862, 1849-1850 I, 1862, 1849-1850 II, 1863, 1850-1851, 1863, 1851-1852, 1864, 1852-1853, 1864, General Index, 1865, 1853-1854, 1865 1854-1855, 1865, 1855-1856, 1865, 1856-1857, 1866, 1857-1858, 1866, 1858-1859, 1867, 1859-1860, 1867, 1860-1861, 1868, 1861-1862, 1868, 1862-1863, 1868, 1863-1864, 1869, posted on Google Books
A collection of state papers: relative to the war against France, vol.1 1794, vol.2 1795, vol.3 I 1795, vol.3 II 1796, vol.5 1797, vol.6, 1798, vol.7, 1799, vol.8, 1800, vol.9, 1800, vol.10, 1801, vol.11, 1802, posted on Google Books
Source Catalogues Ch.30 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Polonicae, Lithuanicae, atque Moscoviticae, pp.746-764 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
J.D.A. Janocki, Specimen catalogi codicum manuscriptorum bibliothecae Zaluscianae, 1752, in Latin, GB
Individual Documents William Penn, A Letter to the King of Poland 1677, posted by QH Press
A.T. Palmer, Authentic memoirs of John Sobieski, King of Poland : illustrative of the inherent errors in the former constitution of that kingdom, which, though arrested for a time by the genius of a hero and a patriot, gradually paved the way to its downfall (1815), posted by Internet Archive
Historische Nachricht Uber die neulich in Polen entstandene Revolutiones worinne die rechtmässige Rückkehr des Königs Augusti in Polen behauptet wird, 1710, in German, GB
G.P. Schultz, Commentarius de Mareschalcis Regni Poloniae cum Duplici Mantissa de Mareschalcis & Cancellariis M. Ducatus Lithuaniae, 1743, in Latin, GB
Historical Maps recent click here
Maps : Europe in the Year <1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, from Euratlas
Poland in Old Maps, from Poland in the Classroom
old City Panoramas 1600, Krakau, Danzig, Warschau, Vilnius, City Panoramas 1750, Krakau, Danzig, Warschau, from Historic Maps
Poland Index, from Historic Cities
Category : Old Maps of Poland, from Wikimedia Commons
Antique Maps of Poland, commercial site
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Polen, Geschichte von, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892 edition, in German
Economic J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Warschau, posted by DTBSWS
Of the Commerce between Great Britain, Poland and Prussia, p.573 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva, 1773, GB
Pologne, pp.208-210, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Historical De Regno Poloniae, pp.391-407 in J.C. Becmann, Historia Orbis Terrarum Geographica 1673, in Latin, GB
Louis Ellies Du Pin, L' Histoire Profane Depuis son commencement jusqu'la present vol.5 : 1000-1700, pp.205-207 : Histoire des Roiaumes d'Hongrie, de Boheme & de Pologne depuis l'an 1450, jusques vers l'an 1600, pp.252-255 : Histoire des Roiaumes d'Hongrie, de Boheme & de Pologne depuis la fin du xv. siecle, jusqu'au commencement du xviii, 1717, in French, GB
Chapter X : Poland, pp.303-328 in : Samuel von Pufendorf, An introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of Europe, 1719, GB
Poland, pp.734-777 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
The History of Poland, pp.1-407 in vol.34 of The Modern Part of an Universal History, 1762, GB
The History of Poland, pp.1-176 in vol.31 of G. Sale et al., The Modern Part of an Universal History, 1783, GB
Histoire de Pologne, depuis 1621 jusqu'en 1720, pp.278-397 in vol.34 of Maximilian-Samson-Friedrich Schöll, Cours d'histoire des Etats Europeens, depuis le bouleversement de l'empire romain d'Occident jusqu'en 1789, 1832, in French, GB
Travelogues Th. Nugent, The grand tour: or A journey through the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and France, vol.2, 1714, GB
W. Coxe, Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark, 4th ed., vol.1, 1787, vol.3, 1787, vol.4, 1792, vol.5, 1791, GB
Institutions Note : in most files listed below, "Poland" refers to the country's modern extension. The user has to be aware that these files may list items which do not belong to the historic Kingdom of Poland, and that they omit others who did belong to it and may have to be sought under "Lithuania", "Belarus", "Ukraine" etc.
Archives State Archives of Poland
Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Poland, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 43 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Poland, 191 entries
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Poland, from Consilium Europa
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Poland, from Wikipedia
ICOM : Museums in Poland
Museum Websites National Museum in Krakow
Historical Museum of Warsaw
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Poland, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Poland), Tentative Lists : Poland
Poland Index, from Showcaves, has historical mines
List of Castles in Poland, from Wikipedia
Windmills in Poland, from Windmillworld; List of Windmills in Poland, from Wikipedia
Category : Watermills in Poland, from Wikimedia
Category : Palaces in Poland, from Wikipedia
Libraries Libraries in Poland, from LibDex, 31 entries
History of the Polish National Library, from The European Library
Article : National Library of Poland, from Wikipedia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Poland - Historical Flags, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Heraldry of the World
Coins, Banknotes Poland, from Medieval Coinage
Search Coin Archives for Poland

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Polen, Poland (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
Search ISBN Database for Poland
RHS Bibliography, search for Polen
on Poland Bibliografia Historii Polskiej, Polish language site
Bibliography on Polish Heraldry, from Heraldica
Historia Poloniae, pp.496-498 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Poland Digital Library of Wielkopolska
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Digital Eastern Europe Library : History
National Digital Library, Poland
Online Journals introduction Zeitschrift f&uum;r Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung (until 1994 : Zeitschrift für Ostforschung), introduction from Clio, in German
Inter Finitimos - Jahrbuch zur Geschichte der deutsch-polnischen Beziehungen, introduction from Clio, in German
Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, introduction from Clio, in German
full text online
contents online Zeitschriftenschau Osteuropa, from Bayerische Landesbibliothek, provides tables of contents of c. 150 journals; site in German
Zeitschrift für Ostforschung (1952-1993) / Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 1994-, from Herder-Institut, Marburg, in German
Online Yearbooks
Historiography Article : Polish Historiography, by E. Domanska, pp.720-723, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts M.B. Biskupski, The History of Poland, Westport : Greenwood 2000, KMLA Lib.Sign. 943.8 B622t
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Poland, an illustrated History, NY : Hippocrene 2000, KMLA Lib.Sign. 943.8 P746p
Article Poland, in Encyclopædia Britannica, Macropædia, Vol.25 pp.930-957; KMLA Lib. Sign. R 032 B862n v.25
Enno Meyer, Grundzüge der Geschichte Polens (Main Features of Polish History), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft 1977 [G]
Manfred Hellmann, Daten der Polnischen Geschichte (Dates in Polish History), München : dtv 1985 [G]
Norman Davies, Heart of Europe. A Short History of Poland, Oxford : UP (1984) 1986 [G]
Historical Section of the Foreign Office, Peace Handbooks : Poland. General Sketch of History 1569-1772; The Three Partitions; The Settlement of 1815, London : H.M.SO. 1919 [G]
Francis Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilization, New Brunswick : Rutgers UP 1962 [G]
Specific Topics
Local, Regional History Zdzislaw Zygulski, Cracow, an Illustrated History, NY : Hippocrene 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 943.86 Z99c
Historical Atlas W. Czaplinski, T. Ladogorski, The Historical Atlas of Poland, Wroclaw : State Cartographic Publishers 1986 [G]
Historical Dictionaries George Sanford, Adriana Gozdecka-Sanford, Historical Dictionary of Poland, Scarecrow 1994, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 943.6 S224h

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