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India Bhutan
First posted on May 21st 2002, last revised on May 28th 2010







The Kingdom of Nepal was established in 1768. In the following years Nepal went on a policy of expansion by conquest, which caused retaliation from Qing China and in 1814 brought it in conflict with the E.I.C. (Gurkha War 1814-1815).
Nepal remained outside British India, never underwent colonial rule. During the establishment of the Republic of India and of Pakistan in 1947, Nepal maintained its independence; during the Sino-Indian War 1962 it maintained its neutrality. The monarchy was abolished in 2008.

Alternative spellings : Nepal, Nepaul, Nipal

Nepal since 1990
Nepal 1950-1990
Nepal 1910-1950
Nepal 1846-1910
Nepal 1768-1846

Historical Atlas, South Asia Page

Students' Paper : Lee, Seung Heon, History of Transportation in South Asia (2009)
Students' Paper : Yang, Eunmo, Modernization of Nepal under the Shahi Dynasty, 1951-1991






E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from Indopedia; from Intute World Guide; from Meat n Potatoes; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Nepal
Library of Congress Country Study : Nepal; from World Wide Gazetteer; from THDS
Historic W. Kirkpatrick, An Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul, 1811, GB
F. Hamilton, An account of the Kingdom of Nepal : and of the territories annexed to this Dominion by the House of Gorkha, 1819, GB
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL, from dmoz
Pandora, Australia's Web Archive, search for Nepal; from Virtual Library, from Islamic World, from South Asia Research Network (SARN)
Category : Nepal, from Wikipedia
Intute, search for Nepal; provides links to websites of relevant institutions
on History South Asian History : Nepal, from UC Berkeley Library
History, from Nepal Research; Category : History of Nepal, from Wikipedia
Organizations
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News
Accounts of History Current History of Nepal, from Lonely Planet, from infoplease, from A Window into Nepal (4 chapters), from Nepal Homepage (focus on period after 1960); from GBGM (Methodist site, partial); from thamel.com
Political History of Nepal, from Nepal Pages, on recent history
Historical Sylvain Levi, The History of Nepal (before 1935), posted by THDL
Specific Periods Sanderson Beck, Tibet, Nepal and Ceylon 1800-1950
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Nepal; Governments on the WWW : Nepal; Article Politics of Nepal, from Wikipedia
Government and Politics Directory, from Nepal Home Page
Conflict History : Nepal, from International Crisis Group
Political History of the Maoists in Nepal, from HPCR Conflict Prevention Initiative
Nepal : People are Creating History, from People's Democracy, 2006 (Communist perspective)
The Fight for Democracy and Press Freedom in Nepal, by Vincent Lim (Asia Media, 2006)
Monarchy in Nepal
Nepal, from United Nations, Human Rights Instruments
Slavery and Freedom in Nepal, from MS Nepal, Book Review; History of Slavery in Nepal, from Child Workers in Asia (CWA)
The UN is the Answer for Nepal, by N. Riveros (Peace & Conflict); further Nepal entries from same source
Kingdom of Nepal, from Online Women in Politics
Nepal Profile, from International Crisis Group
History of Sino-Nepalese Relations, from Embassy of the PRC in Nepal; A Brief History of Japan-Nepal Relations, from Embassy of Japan in Nepal; Japan's Assistance to Nepal's Economic Relations (online book on same subject), from Embassy of Japan in Nepal; Nepal-Britain Relations, from Embassy of Nepal, London
Military Wars of Nepal, 1800-1999, from ACED
Nepal, from Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Nepal, from ODM
Armed Conflicts Report - Nepal, from Ploughshares
Nepal Assessment, from SATP
Nepal Insurgency, from Global Security
The Origins of the Nepalese Maoist Insurgence, from Rao Online
History of Conflict in Nepal, by Gokul Pokhrel, posted by FES Nepal
Trade Union Situation inNepal, from FES Nepal (2001)
Maoist Insurgency in Nepal : Internal Dimensions, by Chitra K. Tiwani (SAAG
Am Outline History of the Brigade of Gurkhas, from Army (UK)
Sowing the Wind. History and Dynamics of the Maoist Revolt in Nepal's Rapti Hills, by Nancy Lindborg and Robert Gersony 2003
H.Th. Prinsep, A Narrative of the Political and Military Transactions of British India under the Administration of the Marquess of Hastings, 1813-1818, 1820, GB ; on Nipal War 1814-1815
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Nepal
Article Economy of Nepal, from Wikipedia
A Short History of Tea Cultivation in Nepal, from Guranse Tea Estate
Business and Economy Directory, from Nepal Home Page
Planning History, from Nepal's Planning Commission
History of Weaving in Nepal, from Spiny Babbler Museum
Nepal, from Internet World Stats
History of Carpet Making in Nepal, from Empress Orient
Internet in Nepal, from APNG
USAID : Nepal
Economy of Nepal, from Arikah
e-banking in Nepal, by Prabal Khanal, posted by APNG; has brief history of banking in Nepal
History of Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nepal (ICAN)
History of Nepal Stock Exchange
What was the Exchange Rate then ?, service provided by Economic History Services
Chhanthyals - The Forgotten Miners of Nepal, from Nepaliaashish; Geological Mapping, from Nepal Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Supplies, Dept. of Mines and Geology
Global Integrity : Nepal 2006, Nepal 2007
Enterprise Nepal, from Economy Point
Social History Nepal, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Ethnography Languages of Bhutan (136), from Ethnologue
Ethnic Nationalism in Nepal, posted by IIAS
Country Report : Nepal, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
Nepal's Dependence on Exporting Labor, from Migration Information Source
Mountain Voices (on emigrant prostitutes etc.)
Migration Information Source : Nepal
Nepal, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Chhanthyals - The Forgotten Miners of Nepal, from Nepaliaashish
History of the Sherpas, from Sherwa Mi
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Nepal
Nepal, pp.499-500 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Nepal, pp.3597-3609 in vol.5B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Nepal, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Nepal, from Wikipedia
Nepal, from Jewish Virtual History Tour
Nepal Sacred Sites, from Sacred Destinations
Nepal Trust
Nepal, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
History of Regions Regions of Nepal, Districts of Nepal, from www.statoids.com
An Environmental History of the Nepal Terai : with Special Reference to Chitwan, by Deb Ranjan Sinha 2002
A Short History of Mustang, from Earth Bound Expeditions
History of Terai in Nepal, by J.K. Goait
Local History History of Kathmandu, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Broadcasting in Nepal, from The Broadcast Archive
History of the Communist Party of Nepal, from CPNUML (official, partial)
Royal Nepal Airlines, from Airlines of India; Nepal, from Airline History
Women Journalists in Nepal, has brief history of Nepalese Media
Articles Education in Nepal, Tribhuvan University, from Wikipedia; Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (of 1982)
Structurae : Nepal
Culture Archaeology of Nepal, from thamel.com
Arts, Culture and Society Directory, from Nepal Home Page
Licchavi Caityas of Nepal : A Solution to the Empty Niche, by Ian Alsop (Asian Art)
Contemporary Nepali Literature, by Mukul Dahal ( The Literature and Culture of the Indian Subcontinent in the Postcolonial Web
History of Cinema in Nepal, from Film Development Board of Nepal
Mukul Dahal, Contemporary Nepali Literature: A Bird's Eye View -- Historical Background , from Post-Colonial Web
Articles Nepal at the Olympics, Category Sport in Nepal, from Wikipedia; History of Golf in Nepal, from Sita Nepal; History of Nepal Mountaineering Association
Biographies Category : Nepalese People, from Wikipedia
Famous Nepalese, from Nations Encyclopedia; from nepal.com
Others Disaster History by Country : Nepal, from Relief Web; Category : Disasters in Nepal, from Wikipedia
History, from USAID in Nepal
History of the United Mission to Nepal (hospital); History of Nepal Medical Council; History of Britain-Nepal Medical Trust
Nepal (Drug Policy and Enforcement, w. brief history), from Center for Harm Reduction; Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Nepal
History of Deforestation in Nepal, by Alaine O'Connor
History, from Nepal Scouts
History (of the Teaching of) Mathematics in Nepal, from KU
Nepal Directory, from Peace Corps Online
Khadka Naravan, U.S. Aid to Nepal in the Cold War Period : Lessons for the Future (2000)
Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
list of Shah Kings from Nepal Homepage, with biographies; Kings of Nepal, from Kessler.Web
Historical Data Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Nepal, from NNDB; Heads of Posts : Nepal, from MOFA Canada
Chinese Ambassadors to Nepal, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Kathm,andu (Nepal), from Wikipedia German edition
Liste chronologique des ambassadeurs (Nepal), from Ambafrance
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Nepal, from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Nepal, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics - Nepal, from Johnston's Archive
R. Kramer, U.S. Bureau of the Census : Nepal, 1979, GB
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
from Psephos (since 1991); from IFES Election Guide (since 1999); from Elections and Electoral Systems
Documents Historical Newspapers Documents for the history of Nepal, from World History Archives
Nepal Article Archives, Kathmandu Article Archive by Keepmedia
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Nepal", search all issues; 236 Nepal articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers; from IPL
List of Newspapers in Nepal, from Wikipedia
Nepal, from SAJA (South Asian Journalists Association)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Sanjaal Ganthan, Historical Pictures of Nepal
Explore Himalaya, Historic Images of Century - Kathmandu Valley
National Museum of Ethnology (Japan), Nepal Photo Database, photos taken in 1958
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Nepal
AGSL Digital Photo Archive : Asia and Middle East
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Universal Collections
Items on Nepal
License Plates, from License Plates of the World, from Francoplaque
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Nepal
Medals of Nepal, from OMSA
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Nepal
Search Janus (catalogues of archives and manuscript collections held throughout Cambridge) for Nepal
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Nepal, from ILO, 9 docs. since 1966
Internet Law Library : Nepal
Treaties Treaties and Agreements relating to Nepal (1792, 1 doc.), from South Asia Project
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Nepal, from United States Institute of Peace
Nepal, pp.1-6 in vol.10 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Document Surveys British Library, Guide to Current South Asian Official Publications; scroll down for Nepal
Document Collections Documents : The People's War in Nepal, from maoism.org; Documents, posted by Nepal's Institute of Foreign Affairs
Nepal Documents, from SATP
Truth Commissions : Nepal, from United States Institute of Peace
Search Hansard for Nepal
Historical Maps Government of Nepal, Ministry of Land Reform and Management, Survey Department
Schwartzberg, Historical Atlas of South Asia, posted by DSAL
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
India, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Maps : Indic Languages from Titus
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Nepal, pp.297-299 in vol.2 of Encyclopaedia Britannica , 1801, GB
Article : Nepaul, pp.198-199 in vol.9 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1836, GB
from EB 1911; from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious
Economic E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Nepal
Geographical Father Giuseppe, An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal, pp.169-192 in vol.2 of W. Jones, Dissertations and Miscellaneous Pieces Relating to the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Litterature of Asia, 1746, GB
Nipal, pp.224-225 in J. Pinkerton, Modern Geography, 1804, GB
Kingdom of Nepal, pp.128-133 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, 1822, GB
Nepal, pp.1-184 in vol.3 of C. Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien, 1834, in German, GB
Article Nepal, from Imperial Gazetteer of India, posted by DSAL
Nepaul, p.373 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Ethnographical Royaume de Nepal, pp.389-390 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues J.B. Fraser, Journal of a tour through part of the snowy range of the Himala Mountains and to the Source of the Rivers Jumna and Ganges, 1820, GB
Institutions Archives National Archives of Nepal
Archives in Nepal, addresses etc. posted by SARN
Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project
Musea Museums and Art Galleries of Nepal, from Asia Travel
Monuments Tentative Lists : Nepal, World Heritage List, scroll down for Nepal; both from UNESCO World Heritage
Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art, Nepal
Libraries Libraries in Nepal, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms of Nepal, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
National Emblems, from Royal Court of Nepal
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Nepal, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from ATS Notes
Coins of Nepal, from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian & English page; from Zeno
Search Coin Archive for Nepal
Nepal, pp.752-774 in vol.2 of W. Marsden, Numismata orientalia illustrata, 1825, GB
Stamps Stamps of Nepal 1881-1907, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
Nepal / Tibet, from The Postal History Website
Rainer's Nepal Classic Stamps and Postal History Page

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Nepal survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.181-198 in B.C. and A.K. Hedrick , Historical Dictionary of Nepal, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1972 [G]
from UC Berkeley Library
Nepal, from The Online Books Page
K.H. Krämer, Bibliography on Nepal and the Himalayan area
Bibliography, Library of Congress Country Studies : Nepal and Bhutan
R.L. Hall, Annotated Bibliography Nepal
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies from SATP
Z. Oxaal, Bibliography on Women in Nepal 1997
FAO : Annotated Bibliography Forest Cover Change Nepal
Readings on Mustang. A Small Bibliography
serial publications Studies in Nepali History and Society (SINHAS)
New Asia Books : Nepal
general bibliographies
Nepal entries
D. Wujastyk, Online South Asian Bibliographies
D. Milobar, South Asia History Bibliography
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Nepal
Food and Culture (Bibliography) : South Asia
D. Ludden, Bibliography on South Asian Agrarian History (c.1990)
Labor in South Asia, a Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
booksellers Books on Nepal, from Orchid Press
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue, keywords Ceylon
Internet Archive
e-corpus
on Nepal Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents online
Historiography Article : Nepali Historiography, by J. Whelpton, p.654, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.24, pp.777-783 Article Nepal. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.24
Specific Topics Chr.V. Hill, South Asia : an Environmental History, Santa Barbara : ABC Clio 2008, 329 pp., KMLA Lib. Call Sign 304.2 H645s
Historical Dictionaries Basil C. and Anne K. Hedrick, Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Nepal, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1972 [G]
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]