18th Century Portugal
Absolutism 1706-1789
Portugal protected by the British, 1807-1814

The French Revolution and the Period of Napoleon Bonaparte :
Impact on Portugal

The Portuguese monarchy was deeply concerned about the unfolding revolution in France. In 1793, Portugal, Spain and Britain signed an alliance, Spanish and Portuguese troops crossed the Pyrenees and invaded France. They were defeated and not it was French troops crossing the Pyrenees. In 1795, Spain signed a peace with France, in 1800 it signed the secret TREATY OF SAN ILDEFONSO. In 1801 Portugal, in an ultimatum, was asked to drop it's alliance with Britain; Portugal refused, a Franco-Spanish force invaded and shortly afterward the PEACE OF BADAJOZ was signed, in which the Portuguese complied with Franco-Spanish demands, among which the cession of OLIVENZA (Spanish-Portuguese War of 1801).
When Napoleon established the CONTINENTAL BLOCKADE in 1804, Portugal was asked to join. Portugal declared itself neutral. In 1807, France (Napoleon) and Spain signed a treaty in which they agreed to invade Portugal in order to force it to comply with the blockade.
During these years, FREEMASONRY spread in Portugal, the freemasons promoting liberal thought.

Library of Congress, Country Studies : Portugal
Portugal : the Army, from Histofig
DOCUMENTS Major William Warre, Battle of Vimiero, eyewitness account from napoleonicwars.com
Treaties concerning Olivenza, from Olivenza International Dispute, has treaty excerpts in English translation
Tratado de Badajoz 1801, from Fronteras e Limites do Brasil, in Portuguese
Correspondencia de Napoleao Bonaparte, enquanto Primeiro Consul, referente a Portugal, de 1799 a 1804, from O Exercito Portugues em finais do Antigo Regime
Documentos, from O Exercito Portugues em finais do Antigo Regime
Portugal, from Annuaire 1789-1815, in French
REFERENCE David Birmingham, A Concise History of Portugal, Cambridge Concise Histories, 1993, 210 pp.

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on November 9th 2004

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