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Morocco as Portrayed in 19th Century Encyclopedias


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Kim, Jisoo
Term Paper, AP European History Class, October 2008



Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. The Coverage of 19th Century Encyclopedias on Morocco
II.1 Geographic Information
II.2 People in Morocco
II.2.1 Population and Race
II.2.2 Religion
II.2.3 Language
II.3 Major Cities and Harbours
II.3.1 Three Historical Cities
II.3.1.1 Fez
II.3.1.2 Marrakech
II.3.1.3 Meknes
II.3.2 Eight Best Harbours
II.3.2.1 Tangier
II.3.2.2 Tetuan
II.3.2.3 Laraish
II.3.2.4 Rabat
II.3.2.5 Casablanca
II.3.2.6 Mazagan
II.3.2.7 Saffi
II.3.2.8 Mogador
II.4 Resources and Industry
II.4.1 Fauna
II.4.2 Flora
II.4.3 Mineral Wealth
II.4.4 Agriculture
II.4.5 Manufacture
II.4.6 Commerce
II.5 Social System
II.5.1 Education
II.5.2 Government
II.5.3 The Army
III. Selection of Articles in 19th Century Encyclopedias
III.1 Selection Criteria of 19th Century Encyclopedias
III.2 Selection Criteria of Articles in 19th Century Encyclopedias
IV. Content Analysis
IV.1 Criteria for Content Analysis
IV.2 Coverage and Depth of Articles in German Encyclopedias
IV.3 Coverage and Depth of Articles in English Encyclopedias
V. Reliability and Quality
V.1 Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892 Edition
V.2 Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 Edition
V.3 Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, 1837-1841 Edition
V.4 Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 Edition
V.5 Herders Conversations-Lexikon, 1854-1857 Edition
V.6 Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 4th ed. 1857-1865
V.7 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1902 Edition
V.8 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 Edition
V.9 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914 Edition
V.10 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 Edition
VI. Conclusion
Appendix: Article Segment Translations
Notes
Bbliography



I. Introduction
            The purpose of this paper was to find out how the articles of 19th century encyclopedias described Morocco. First, I established 16 questions I wanted to know about Morocco. Then I searched 19th century encyclopedias and selected six encyclopedias in German and four encyclopedias in English according to the preset criteria. About one hundred articles in ten encyclopedias were selected according to the selection criteria. The articles in German were translated into English by using Google Language Translation Engine. I reviewed all the selected articles and analyzed ten selected encyclopedias.
            In the first part of this paper, I dealt with general information on Morocco described in 19th century encyclopedias. The answers for 16 questions on Morocco were explained after reading one hundred Morocco related articles. In the second part of the paper, I explained my selection criteria of 19th encyclopedias as well as selection criteria of articles for this paper. In the third part, I went on to the content analysis of 19th century encyclopedias used for this paper. The coverage and depth of the articles of each encyclopedia were analyzed according to the preset criteria. In the fourth part, I discussed the reliability and quality as well as the characteristics of each encyclopedia. Finally, in the conclusion part of this paper, I summarized this entire research.

II. The Coverage of 19th Century Encyclopedias on Morocco
            Morocco is described in detail in some of 19th century encyclopedias. This paper reviewed almost all the articles in 19th century encyclopedias if they are directly related to Morocco. I set up 16 questions (subjects) I want to know about Morocco and tried to get answers on them. By using internet search engine and using Google language translation engine, I gathered information on Morocco. This part of my paper is introducing general facts on Morocco described in 19th century encyclopedias.

II.1 Geographic Information
            The land known as Morocco forms the northwest corner of the Continent of Africa, with the Mediterranean on the north and the Atlantic on the west. Its landward limits can only be vaguely defined.(1) Between the Mediterranean littoral and the Sahara, the Atlas Plateau, broken by ravines and valleys, rivers and smaller streams, contains many tracts of marvelously fertile country. The interior of Morocco is represented as extremely mountainous. The backbone of the country is the Great Atlas. At its western extremity the range averages from 1300 to 1600 m in height, with a few peaks reaching to 4,000 to 4,500 m.

II.2 People in Morocco

II.2.1 Population and Race
            Of the population of Morocco only the vaguest estimate is possible. 19th encyclopedias have different statistics on population of Morocco. According to Catholic Encyclopedia, total population of Morocco was 10 million. Jewish Encyclopedia reported the population of Morocco from 5 million to 10 million. However, Brockhaus- ConversationsLexicon (1837) introduced the population of Morocco as 3.5 million of Arabs and Moors, 600,000 of very depressed Jews, 120,000 of Negroes, and a few hundred Europeans.
            Meyers Conversationslexicon (1885) estimated 10 million also. It described five different races: indigenous Berbers, Moors, Jews (200,000), Negroes (500,000) imported from Sudan, and Europeans (2,000).
            Ethnographically Morocco consists of three main elements: Berbers, Arabs, and Jews with a large infusion of Negro blood and a sprinkling of Negro individuals.
            The Berbers are the original occupants of the country and they still form not only the most numerous but the most industrious and civilizable section of the people. While the Arab is still by preference a dweller in tents, the Berber for the most part builds himself houses of stone or clay. On the whole, the Arabs are predominant in the lowlands and the Berbers in the hilly districts and mountains.
            The Jews are the great commercial class in the community. They are usually said to number about 150,000 to 200,000, but Rohlfs (Petermann¡¯s Mitth., 1883) shows reason to suppose that they do not exceed 62,800. However, according to Jewish Encyclopedia, there were 150,000 Jews.

II.2.2 Religion
            The religion of Morocco is predominantly Islam, the Moors being among the strictest followers of Mahomet. The divisions of the East are unknown, and their tenets include the principal teachings of both Shias and Sunnis, but, as employing the Maleki ritual, they must be classed with the latter. There were 30,000 to 350,000 Jews according to Jewish Encyclopedia. The Jews in Morocco were very cruelly treated. According to Catholic Encyclopedia, there were average 10,000 Catholics.

II.2.3 Language
            The language of Morocco is Berber, of which several dialects are spoken, notably that of the Rif, towards Algeria, and the Shilha of central Morocco and the Sus. Of these very little is known; but they do not essentially differ from one another or from those of Algeria, notwithstanding considerable variations of pronunciation and a varying proportion of Arabic or other admixtures, there being no written standard to maintain.
            On the plains and coast of central Morocco, however, Arabic has superseded Berber, as the language of creed and court. Since the 15th century, when Ibn Khaldun found the Arabic of Morocco very corrupt, it has made great strides, and having always been a foreign tongue with the Koran as its model, it has escaped many of the faults into which Eastern Arabic outside Arabia has fallen. This is especially noticeable in the correct Arab value given to the alphabet and in the strictly classical use of many terms, especially among the litterati of Fez.

II.3 Major Cities and Harbours

II.3.1 Three Historical Cities
            There were three capitals of Morocco. Fez is one of the capitals and other two being Marrakesh and Meknes. (2) These cities serve as metropolis. They are famous historical cities too.

II.3.1.1 Fez
            Capital of the province of Fez in the sultanate of Morocco; built in the year 808 by Imam Idris II., who founded in Morocco the first Shiite state. (Jewish Encyclopedia) A small wadi, known under various names, divides the city into two parts, Old Fez, containing the palace and the "Mellah" or Jewish quarter, and New Fez, which contains the bulk of the modern city.
            Old Fez is the business portion of the town, new Fez being occupied principally by government quarters and Jews' mellah . The tradesman usually sits cross-legged in a corner of his shop with his goods so arranged that he can reach most of them without moving. In the early days of Mahommedan rule in Morocco, Fez was the seat of learning and the empire's pride.

II.3.1.2 Marrakech
            Marrakesh is the only really large city of central Morocco. It lies in a spacious plain - Blad el Hamra. Ranking during the early centuries of its existence as one of the greatest cities of Islam, Marrakesh has long been in a state of grievous decay, but it is rendered attractive by the exceptional beauty of its situation, the luxuriant groves and gardens by which it is encompassed and interspersed, and the magnificent outlook which it enjoys towards the mountains. The palace of the sultan covers an extensive area, and beyond it lie the imperial parks of Agudal, the inner one reserved for the sultan's exclusive use. The tower of the Kutubia is a memorial of the constructive genius of the early Moors.

II.3.1.3 Meknes
            Meknes or Mequinez was a big city. However, there were no articles with the title of ¡°Meknes¡± in 19th century encyclopedias. I only found one article related to Meknes, whose heading was ¡°Slavery¡± as follows.
            The centre of the traffic in Morocco is Sidi Hamed ibn Musa, seven days¡¯ journey south of Mogador, where a great yearlyfair is held. The slaves are forwarded thence in gangs to different towns, especially to Morocco city, Fez, and Mequinez. About 4000 are thus annually imported, and an ad valorem duty is levied by the sultan, which produces about 94,800 Pound Sterling of annual revenue. The total number of negro slaves in Morocco appears to be about 50,000.

II.3.2 Eight Best Harbours
            There are eight open Moroccan ports: Tangier, Tetuan, Laraish, Rabat, Casablanca, Mazagan, Saffi and Mogador. (3)

II.3.2.1 Tangier
            Tangier is the famous metropolis as well as the finest harbour in Morocco. Tangier was once called Tingis. When it was bombarded by the Prince de Joinville in 1844, it belonged to Morocco. The natives call it Tandja. It has about 40,000 inhabitants, of whom half are Mussulmans, 10,000 Jews, 9000 Europeans (7500 Spanish). Catholic Encyclopedia
            Tangier is almost destitute of manufactures, and while the trade, about 750,000 a year, is considerable for Morocco, it is confined chiefly to imports, about two-fifths of which come from Great Britain and Gibraltar, and one quarter from France . The exports are chiefly oxen, meat, fowls and eggs for Gibraltar and sometimes for Spain, with occasional shipments of slippers and blankets to Egypt . Most of the trade, both wholesale and retail, is in the hands of the Jews.

II.3.2.2 Tetuan
            Tetuan is the only open port of Morocco on the Mediterranean, a few miles S. of the Strait of Gibraltar. Population was about 25,000, of whom a fifth are Jews. In point of cleanliness Tetuan compares favourably with most Moorish towns. The streets are fairly wide and straight, and several of the houses belonging to aristocratic Moors, descendants of those expelled from Spain, have fine courts surrounded by arcades, some with marble fountains and planted with orange trees . The harbour of Tetuan is obstructed by a bar, over which only small vessels can pass.
            The present town of Tetuan dates from 1492, when the Andalusian Moors first reared the walls and then filled the enclosure with houses. It had a reputation for piracy at various times in its history . It was taken on the 4th of February 1860 by the Spaniards under O'Donnell, and almost transformed by them into a European city before its evacuation on the 2nd of May 1862, but so hateful were the changes to the Moors that they completely destroyed all vestiges of alteration and reduced the city to its former state .

II.3.2.3 Laraish
            Laraish is a port in northern Morocco on the Atlantic coast. The town is well situated for defence, its walls are in fair condition, and it has ten forts, all supplied with old-fashioned guns. Traces of the Spanish occupation from 1610?1689 are to be seen in the towers whose names are given by Tissot as those of St Stephen, St James and that of the Jews, with the Castle of Our Lady of Europe, now the kasbah or citadel .
            The most remarkable feature of Laraish is its fine large market-place inside the town with a low colonnade in front of very small shops. The streets, though narrow and steep, are generally paved. Its chief exports are oranges, millet, dra and other cereals. The wool goes chiefly to Marseilles. The annual value of the trade is from 400,000 to 500,000 Pound Sterling. 'Tradition also connects Laraish with the garden of the Hesperides, `Ariisi being the Arabic for " pleasure-gardens," and the golden apples " perhaps the familiar oranges .

II.3.2.4 Rabat (Ribat)
            Rabat is a city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, southern side and at the mouth of the Bu Ragrag, which separates it from Salli on the northern bank . It is a commercial town of about 26,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, occupying a rocky plateau and surrounded by massive but dilapidated walls, strengthened by three forts on the seaward side. To the south of the town stands a modern palace, defended by earth-works and Krupp guns
            Rabat trades with Fez and the interior of Morocco, with the neighbouring coast towns and Gibraltar, and with Marseilles, Manchester and London, and is the greatest industrial centre in Morocco. Rabat was founded by Yak'ub el Mansur in 1184, but Salli was then already an ancient city, and on the scarped hills to the west of Rabat stand the ruins of Sala, a Roman colony, known as Shella . It contains a mausoleum of the Beni Marin dynasty.

II.3.2.5 Casablanca
            Casa Blanca, the ancient Anfa, once a flourishing port, was ruined by the Portuguese (1468) in revenge for its piracies. It is now a place of 4000 inhabitants, and has a thriving export trade in maize, beans, and wool, and a European colony of about 100 persons. (1902 Britannica) It is a wool and grain port for central Morocco, chiefly for the provinces of Tadla and Shawia . Third in importance of the towns on the Moorish coast, unimpeded by bar or serious rocks, the roadstead is exposed to the north-west wind. There is anchorage for steamers in 5 to 6 fathoms . Vessels were loaded and discharged by lighters from the beach.

II.3.2.6 Mazagan
            Mazagan is a port on the Atlantic coast of Pop (1908) about 12,000, of whom a fourth are Jews and some 400 Europeans. It is the port for Marrakesh, and also for the fertile province of Dukalia. Mazagan presents from the sea a very un-Moorish appearance. The exports, which include beans, almonds, maize, chick-peas, wool, hides, wax, eggs, &c., were valued at ?360,000 in 1900, ?364,000 in 1904, and ?248,000 in 1906. The imports cotton goods, sugar, tea, rice etc. were valued at ?280,000 in 1900, ?286,000 in 1904, and ?320,000 in 1906. About 46% of the trade is with Great Britain and 34% with France . Mazagan was built in 1506 by the Portuguese, who abandoned it to the Moors in 1769 and established a colony, New Mazagan, on the shores of Para in Brazil

II.3.2.7 Saffi
            Saffi or AsrI, is a seaport on the west coast of Morocco. (Pop. about 15,000.) Although the principal wool and grain port of central Morocco, the anchorage is an open roadstead and communication with the shore is at times difficult. The old palace with beautifully decorated courts in fair repair, built by Mohammed XVII., is a prominent object above the town and there are many interesting buildings and ruins.

II.3.2.8 Mogador
            Mogador is the most southern seaport of Morocco.?Population was about 20,000 (1908),?of whom nearly a half are said to be Jews and about half are Europeans. The prosperity of Mogador is due to its commerce. The harbor is well sheltered from all winds except the south-west, but escape is difficult with the wind from that quarter, as the channel between the town and Mogador Island is narrow and hazardous.

II.4 Resources and Industry

II.4.1 Fauna
            There is abundant space in the the country for wild animals. Besides lion, which exists only in very limited numbers, the spotted leopard, the hyaena, lynx, fox, and wild boar are the most important. The anclad or wild sheep is found in the more inaccessible parts of the Atlas. Rabbits swam in the country. Monkeys of the same species as those of Gibraltar frequent the neighbourhood of Jebel Musa or Apes' Hill. The common wild birds include blackbirds, goldfinches, linnets, greenfinches, robins, wagtails, skylarks and crested larks, swifts, magpies, cuckoos, lapwings, rollers, several shrikes, as well as turtle-doves, nightingales, jays and buffbacked egrets
            Of domestic animals the mule is the great beast of burden, though camels, mares and asses are also employed. The horse is usually a sturdy little animal, but far below the ancient reputation of the Barbary steed. Domestic fowls are kept in great numbers; they are of the Spanish type, small and prolific.
            The bonito and msckerel fishery off the coast of Casablanca and Tangier attracts fishers from Spain, Portugal and other parts of Europe. Occasionally a small shoal may be found as far south as Mogador. Soles, turbot, bream bass, conger eel and mullet are common along the coast.

II.4.2 Flora
            Morocco has great Mediterranean flora with the mountain flora. It has a considerable number of new specific types, also. Of the individual plants none are more remarkable than the ¡°arar¡± and the ¡°argan¡±. The former is a cypress-like tree that grows on the Atlas both in Morocco and Algeria.. The ¡°argan¡±, is confined to a tract of country extending about 150 m. along the coast, from the river Tansift almost to the river Sus, and about 30 m. in breadth; and it is found nowhere else in the world. The fruit, which ripens between May and August, is an olive-looking nut, greedily eaten by camels, mules, goats, sheep and horned cattle (but not by horses) for the sake of the fleshy pericarp, and crushed by the natives to extract the oil for the Kernel.
            The palmetto often locally very abundant, but the most common wild tree on the plains is the thorny lotus in the mountainous regions. Citrons, lemons, limes (sweet and sour), apricots, plums, melons, mulberries, walnuts and chestnuts are common in many parts.

II.4.3 Flora
            Mineral deposits of great value exist in Morocco. At Jebel Hadid or the Iron Mountain in Abda and in Sus iron has long been worked. On the road to Kenatsa, Rohlfs saw lead and antimony worked. Antimony especially seems to be abundant to the south of the Atlas. That gold existed in Sus was long suspected; Gatell proved it. Rock-salt occurs in the mountains north of Fez, in the valley of the W. Martil, and probably in Jebel Zarhon. In several places, as in the route from Saffi to Morocco, are brine lakes, from which the salt is collected and exported as far as Central Africa.

II.4.4 Agriculture
            It is still true, as in the time of Addison that the Moors "seldom reap more than will bring the year about," and the failure of a single harvest causes inevitable dearth. Only a small part of the available land is cultivated; and the cultivated portion possessed by each tribe is divided into three parts, one only of which is sown each year. With a plough of the most primitive description the Moorish peasant scarcely scratches the surface of the soil; his harrow is a few branches of trees weighted with heavy stones. The corn is cut close to the ear with short serrated sickles, and the straw is left standing. Underground granaries are excavated beneath the tufaceous crust which covers much of the lowlands, sometimes capable of holding 2000 quarters; they preserve their contents in good condition for many years.

II.4.5 Manufacture
            The manufactures are few, and the most famousleather - is now either exported undressed to Marseilles or Philadelphia, or is counterfeited by machinery in London or Paris. With the exception of slippers and shawls supplied to Moors established in the Levant, manufactured exports consist principally of carpets, rugs, trays, arms and "curios" for decorative purposes. For home use the Moors do much spinning, weaving, and dyeing, chiefly of wool; but although it is possible to dress superbly in native-made articles, every year sees an increasing importation of Manchester and Yorkshire goods, rivalled by the cheaper products of Barcelona and Austria - in the last case with great success.

II.4.6 Commerce
            The external trade of Morocco is mainly with Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain. The proportion of trade taken by Britain, formerly fully 50% of the whole, had decreased in 1905 to 32%, in which year France's share was 39%, that of Germany nearly 12% and that of Spain 5%. Statistics as to its value are difficult to obtain and not trustworthy either.
            The chief articles of exports are skins and hides, sheep, oxen and goats, wool, barley, eggs, beeswax, almonds and slippers. Maize, peas and chick-peas are also considerable exports in years of good crops. Cotton goods form the chief articles of import (exceeding ?800,000 in value in 1906), sugar, tea, flour and semolina coming next. Other imports include cloth, candles, iron and hardware, wines and spirits. Wheat and oxen are imported overland from Algeria.

II.5 Social System

II.5.1 Education
            The level of education could hardly be lower, although most males have an opportunity of learning to recite or read the Koran, if not to write. Only traders trouble about arithmetic. Youths who desire to pursue their studies attend colleges in Fez or elsewhere to acquire some knowledge of Mahommedan theology, logic, composition and jurisprudence.
            In Jewish Encyclopedia, the Alliance Isra?lite Universelle has tried to found schools in Fez (1883), Mogador (1888), Tangier (1864), Tetuan (1862), and Casa Blanca (1897). The establishment of girls' schools in Tangier (1879), Tetuan (1868 and 1897), and Mogador, by the Alliance Isra?lite Universelle and the Anglo-Jewish Association, gives a clear insight into the most necessary educational needs of the Jewish population of Morocco. However, the Moroccan Jewesses are generally uneducated. In Catholic Encyclopedia, there were 16 Christian schools and 1200 children in Morocco.

II.5.2 Government
            The form of government is an absolute monarchy. The Sultan is full Lord of life and death (Meyers, 1885). The Moorish government is a limited autocracy, the theoretically absolute power of the sultan being greatly circumscribed by the religious influences which in a measure support him, and by the official proletariat with which he is surrounded. The central government is known as the maghzen or makhzan (an Arabic word primarily meaning storehouse), a term also applied to the whole administrative body and collectively to the privileged tribes from whose ranks the state officials are recruited. At the head of the administration are wazirs or ministers of state, who possess no power independent of the sultan's will. The wazirs in general accompany the court, but the minister for foreign affairs is stationed at Tangier. Local administration is directed by the governors of provinces and towns, who are nominated by the wazir ed dakhalani (minister of the interior). The subordinate town officials are appointed by the governor, and sheiks direct the affairs of the villages.
            The evidence of non-Mahommedans is not accepted in Moorish courts, where venality reigns, and unprotected Jews suffer constant injustice, besides daily indignities, for which they repay themselves by superior astuteness.

II.5.3 Army
            A half-organized army - service in which is partly hereditary, partly forced - is periodically employed in collecting taxes at sword-point, and in "eating up " the provinces; with it the custom is (or was) for the sultan to go forth to war each summer, spending the winter in one of his capitals. The only approach to a regular army consists of certain hereditary troops furnished by the maghzen tribes, the Bokhara (black), the Udaia (mulatto), the Ashragah and Ashrardah (white), and the Gaish, who form a body of police, Makhhaznia (mixed), all of whom are horsemen. The infantry (Askaria) are mostly rough levies; only a small portion being well trained under European officers. No accurate estimate can be formed of the total available forces, and the arms are of every pattern. There is no navy, but the government possesses several small steamers, one or two mounting guns

III. Selection of Articles in 19th Century Encyclopedias

III.1 Selection Criteria of 19th Century Encyclopedias
            I selected total ten different encyclopedias in 19th century. First of all, if the encyclopedia gives answers for more than five questions (subjects) this paper deals with, then I selected the encyclopedia. For example, if Jewish Encyclopedia has information on race, population, fauna, cities, and education of Morocco, then the encyclopedia was selected. In this way, six encyclopedias in German and four encyclopedias in English were selected.
            I reviewed encyclopedias in Swedish and in Danish also. However, I did not select them because their information on Morocco was too brief and the content was inadequate for this paper. In the same way, ¡°Röll: Encyclopedia of the railway system¡± was not selected because it did not have any information on the subjects of this paper. Finally, the following encyclopedias were selected and analyzed in this paper

            1.. Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892 Edition
            2. Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 Edition
            3. Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, 1837-1841 Edition
            4. Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 Edition
            5 Herders Conversations-Lexikon, 1854-1857 Edition
            6. Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 4th ed. 1857-1865
            7. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1902 Edition
            8. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 Edition
            9. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914 Edition
            10. Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 Edition

III.2 Selection Criteria of Articles in 19th Century Encyclopedias
            The articles in the above encyclopedias were selected on the basis of the following criteria
            1. Search the word ¡°Morocco¡± in English encyclopedias and ¡°Marokko¡± in German encyclopedias.
            All the articles under the heading of ¡°Morocco¡± in English, and ¡°Marokko¡± in German were selected. Each encyclopedia has one article under the heading of ¡°Morocco¡± or ¡°Marokko¡±. However, Meyer¡¯s ConversationsLexicon (1905) shows three different articles with the heading of ¡°Marokko¡±. Out of three articles, only two articles were selected because one article has only three lines of information on ¡°Marokko¡±.
            Some encyclopedias such as Encyclopedia Britannica (1911) have one ¡°Morocco¡± article in which there are many independent articles ?sometimes more than twenty articles- with subheadings. Therefore, actually, more than sixty articles were selected and analyzed under the big ¡°Morocco¡± or ¡°Marokko¡± heading.
            2. Search three major cities and eight harbours of Morocco such as ¡°Fez¡±, ¡°Tangiers¡±, ¡°Meknes¡±, ¡°Casablanca¡±. If the searching result has independent article whose heading is the name of the city, then the article was selected. Some encyclopedias have articles for all eleven cities and harbors respectively while others have only three or fours articles on cities only. content in the second part of this paper. Coverage and depth of articles were compared by using following criteria

IV. Content Analysis of 19th Century Encyclopedias
IV.1 Criteria for Content Analysis
            To review and to compare content in each encyclopedia, I made certain criteria. In this analysis, I tried to see whether information described in each encyclopedia is better or worse compared to the content in the second part of this paper. Coverage and depth of articles were compared by using following criteria.

Marks Coverage and Depth of Article
Super Information is much superior than content in this paper. (Very detailed information usually more than two paragraphs of information)
Good Information is better than content in this paper. (More than one long paragraph of information)
Average Information is similar to content in this paper. (From four sentences to one paragraph of information)
Poor Information is poorer than content in this paper. (Form one sentence to three sentences of information)
None Information is not given at all.


IV.2 Coverage and Depth of Articles of Encyclopedias in German
            Six encyclopedias in German were analyzed using above criteria as follows.

Meyer 1885 Meyer 1902 Brockhaus 1837 Brockhaus 1894 Herder 1854 Pierer 1857
Location none super average none poor super
Geology none super average poor poor super
Population average good super average poor average
Race average good average average poor average
Religion average poor average average poor average
Language none average none average none poor
Cities average average average poor poor poor
Harbours average average poor poor poor poor
Fauna poor average poor poor poor average
Flora none average none poor none none
Minerals none average poor none poor poor
Agriculture none average poor good poor poor
manufactures poor poor poor average poor poor
Commerce average good poor average poor average
Education none none none none none poor
Government average good average good poor poor
Army average good average good poor poor


IV.3 Coverage and Depth of Articles of Encyclopedias in English
            Four encyclopedias in English were analyzed using the same criteria as follows

Britannica 1902 Britannica 1911 Catholic Enc. 1907 Jewish Enc. 1901
Geographic Info super super average none
Population average none poor poor
Race average average average poor
Religion poor poor average poor
Language none super none poor
Capital Cities poor good none none
Harbours poor good poor none
Fauna super super none none
Flora super super none none
Minerals poor super none none
Agriculture good average poor none
Manufactures none average poor none
Commerce poor average poor none
Education poor average poor super (Jewish)
Government poor average poor super
Army none good none poor


V. Reliability and Quality
            As far as reliability is concerned, whether information of certain encyclopedia is more reliable than that of the other encyclopedia, is very hard to prove. Perhaps nobody can tell whether specific information provided in 19th encyclopedias is accurate or not. However, we can discuss quality of information as well as distinguishing characteristics of each encyclopedia. Therefore, I tried to analyze reliability and quality of each encyclopedia as well as its distinguishing characteristics respectively.

V.1 Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892 Edition
            Mayers Konversatinslexicon briefly deals with many aspects of Morocco. The way of explanation is concrete and precise although overall information on Morocco is only about two pages. Especially the encyclopedia introduces five races and number of population for each race much more firmly than other encyclopedias.
            This encyclopedia shows statistics of importing and exporting to European countries very specifically.
            The names of the trading ports of Morocco are briefly mentioned. While Marakesh is introduced as a Capital in one paragraph, the encyclopedia deals with Fez and Tanger in a separate full length article.
            However, the encyclopedia lacks information on natural resources such as flora, mineral, and agriculture. It lacks information on location and geology of Morocco, either.

V.2 Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 Edition
            Meyers Konversationslexicon (1905) has three articles with the heading of ¡°Marokko¡±. One is too short. And the other two articles give comprehensive information on Morocco. Compared to its former edition of 1885, this edition improved a lot in quality of information. First of all, the long article has sub titles for each subject of information such as population, coinage, military, etc.
            The content of the article answers for all the questions of this paper satisfactorily except education. The cities including Fez, Tanger, and Casablanca are explained as a separate article respectively. Some information such as military and geographic information is provided in detail. As a whole, Meyers Konversationslexicon of 1995 provides very good quality of information on Morocco.

V.3 Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, 1837-1841 Edition
            Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon (1837) gives limited information on Morocco. Perhaps the reason is that this encyclopedia is the oldest one among the encyclopedias for this paper. The article gives general information mingled with the history of Morocco. The history of Morocco provided by the encyclopedia is quite interesting, though. For example, it writes, ¡°the regents were most cruel and tyrannical, and is named Ismael Mulei, died 1727, as one of the most notorious W?thrich. From its 8000 women, he had 825 sons and 342 daughters.¡± (4 )
            The distinguishing characteristic is that the article of this encyclopedia provides number of inhabitants in each city in Morocco. According to the article, there were 700,000 inbabitants in Marakesh, 12,000 in Saffi, 17,000 in Mogador, 55,000 in Mekines, 90,000 in Fez, 9,500 in Tangier, etc. This specific information is unique among 19th century encyclopedias.

V.4 Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 Edition
            Brockhaus Konversationslexikon (1894-1896) provides general information on Morocco briefly. The quality of information did not improve much from that of Brockhaus 1837 edition. While information on government and army is well described, the other information is not provided in detail.
            The distinguishing characteristic of this encyclopedia is that it provides good quality of information on Fes and Morocco (city). Information on Fes and on Morocco is much longer than information on the country of Morocco in this encyclopedia.

V.5 Herders Conversations-Lexikon, 1854-1857 Edition
            In Herders Conversations-Lexikon (1854), there is one page of article with the heading of ¡°Marokko¡±. This article provides very compact information on Morocco. Within one page of information, it deals with various aspects of Morocco. For each question of this paper, the article answers in one to three sentences of information. Therefore, it is marked ¡°poor¡± in most of the subjects. However, information itself is good and concrete. As a whole, this encyclopedia provides good concept on Morocco.

V.6 Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 4th ed. 1857-1865
            Information on Morocco in Pierer¡¯s Universal-Lexikon seems to be quite brief and precise. Especially the statistics on numbers including population and army are distinguished among many other historical encyclopedias. Unlike other German encyclopedias, it provides full length of geographic information, too.
            Information on Rabat and Fez is about one paragraph each. For Tanger and Mogador, information within three sentences is given, even though it has independent heading by the name of the city. Other major cities are introduced briefly in relation with trading. The article on Morocco has total ten pages of information, however, in which content is mostly related to the history of Morocco

V.7 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1902 Edition
            The Encyclopaedia Britannica (1902) has very long and comprehensive information on Morocco. One article, whose title is ¡°Morocco¡± has more than 16 pages of information on Morocco. Therefore, although this article does not provide any sub headings except ¡°history¡±, this article gives quite comprehensive information in general.
            While this encyclopedia gives abundant information on geography and nature including fauna and flora, however, information on industry and social system is very weak. However, overall the encyclopedia has good quality of information.

V.8 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 Edition
            Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911 edition provides quite a lot of detailed information on Morocco with more than thirty article headings. Since this encyclopedia is the latest published encyclopedia among historical encyclopedias used for this paper, information could be gathered far easily than the others. Anyway, this encyclopedia provided all the answers for the questions of this paper only except for population. It is strange why this encyclopedia does not describe population of Morocco.
            This encyclopedia is distinguished in the point that it only provides individualized articles for all of the main cities and eight important harbors. Other historical encyclopedias have separate articles usually for two to three cities or harbors.
            The encyclopedia has more than thirty article headings about Morocco directly linked by internet. Therefore, information can be easily browsed. The quality of information is excellent as far as the questions of this paper concerned. The articles are reliable, too.

V.9 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914 Edition
            Catholic Encyclopedia provides little bit poor level of information for the questions of this paper. However, for the purpose of catholics in Morocco, it is doing its job fairly well. According to Catholic Encyclopedia, there are in Morocco, 10,000 catholics, 24 missionaries, 8 stations in leading ports, 16 schools with 1200 children and a hospital at Tangier.

V.10 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 Edition
            Jewish Encyclopedia has twenty six article headings about Morocco. The article headings include various subjects from ¡°Traditions form Early Settlement¡± to ¡°Scholars and Rabbis¡±. However, this encyclopedia is mainly for the history of Jews in Morocco.
            In most part, the articles deal with how cruelly Jews were treated in Moroccan History. The Jewish schools in Morocco were described very much in detail. It is notable how Jews established their own schools under such a terribly depressed situation. Therefore, the questions of this paper are not answered properly. That¡¯s why most of checkings were marked ¡°Poor¡± or ¡°None¡± in this paper.
            Fez, Casablanca and Mogador have independent articles with their own names as headings. These articles have full length of information as well as excellent quality of information on Moroccan Jews.

VI. Conclusion
            This research went through many steps, because encyclopedias in languages other than English should be translated. To select proper 19th century encyclopedias and proper articles, preset criteria were used. Translation was mainly done by using Google Language Translation Engine. It was very interesting to read articles in historical encyclopedias in different languages. What I found through this research process are as follows.
            1. Each historical encyclopedia has different information on Morocco with its own focus.
            2. The format of article is different from encyclopedia to encyclopedia.
            3. Articles in German encyclopedias are very concrete in statistics than those in English.
            4. Articles in English encyclopedias are sometimes very narrative and lengthy compared to those in German encyclopedias.
            5. To get proper information on certain subjects, many encyclopedias need to be searched.
            6. Virtually any languages could be translated into English by language translation engine. Although translation might not be accurate and sometimes very primitive, we still can get primary information through this process.


Appendix : Example of Article Segment Trnaslations
           
Article ¡°Marokko¡± from BrockhausConversationsLexicon, 1837 Translation into English
Marokko (das Kaiserthum), nach seinen beiden Hauptbestandtheilen auch Fez und Marokko oder das Sultanat Mogh'rib-ul-Aksa genannt, d.h. der äusserste Westen, bildet die nordwestl. Ecke von Afrika, wird östl. von Algier und Biledulgerid, n?rdl. 67 M. weit vom mittelländ. Meere, westl. auf einer Strecke von 140 M. vom atlant. Meere, s?dl. von der Wüste Sahara begrenzt und hat auf 13,725 Quadratmeilen, ungefähr 81/2 Mill. Einw. Die frühere Geschichte dieses Landes ist die der ganzen Berberei (s. Barbaresken), doch erhielt es sich stets unabhängig von der Pforte und wird seit 1547 von der Familie des Mehemed, genannt Sherif, eines angeblichen Nachkommen Mohammed's, beherrscht. Der Thron ist unter den m?nnlichen Nachkommen des Herrschers erblich, allein nicht nach dem Rechte der Erstgeburt, daher jeder Regentenwechsel einen Krieg zwischen Br?dern und Verwandten erregt. Die meisten Regenten waren grausam und tyrannisch und namentlich ist Mulei Ismael, gest. 1727, als einer der grössten Wüthriche berüchtigt. Von seinen 8000 Frauen hatte er 825 Söhne und 342 Töchter und es kann sonach nicht auffallen, da©¬ die Zahl der Sherifs in M. sich jetzt auf 40,000 belaufen soll. Der regierende Sultan Mulei-Abd-errahman besitzt den Thron seit dem 28. Nov. 1822, herrscht unumschr?nkt und bedient sich blos einer kleinen Anzahl beliebig dazu ausersehener Personen zu Rathgebern. Viermal wöchentlich hält der Sultan öffentliche Audienz und spricht Recht, allein ohne Geschenke darf dann Niemand kommen und der Koran ist das allein gültige Gesetzbuch. Die Staatseinkünfte aus dem Zehnten, der Judensteuer, den Zöllen und andern Abgaben werden auf 3 Mill. Thlr. geschätzt und werfen einen bedeutenden Überschuss ab, welcher in den Schatz des Sultans flie©¬t. Für gewöhnlich besteht das Heer aus 15,000 M., davon die Hälfte Neger sind, im Kriege aber wird die Miliz aufgeboten und die Armee wächst dann auf 100,000 M.; die Seemacht z?hlt nur noch einige Briggs und Kanonierschaluppen Morocco (the Kaiserthum), after its two main stock Theilen also Fez and Morocco and the Sultanate Mogh'rib-ul-Aqsa, that is to say the extreme west, is the nordwestl. Corner of Africa, is east of Algiers and Biledulgerid, 67 M. north of mittell?nd far. Seas, west on a line of 140 yards from the Atlantic Ocean. Oceans, south of the Sahara desert and is limited to 13.725! M. roughly 81 / 2 million inhabitants, the earlier history of this country is that of the whole Berberei (see Esken Barbarian), but it was always independent of the gate, and since 1547 by the family of Mehemed called Sheriff, an alleged Muhammad's descendants, dominates. The throne is among the male descendants of the hereditary monarch, but not according to the rights of primogeniture, therefore, any change Regentpark a war between brothers and excited relatives. The regents were most cruel and tyrannical, and is named Ismael Mulei, died 1727, as one of the most notorious W?thrich. From its 8000 women, he had 825 sons and 342 daughters, and it can not LY noticed that the number of Sheriff in M. now amounts to 40.000 should be. The ruling Mulei-Sultan Abd-errahman owns the throne since 28 Nov. 1822, is fully serviced and is just a small number of arbitrarily chosen to persons Rathgeber. Four times a week, the Sultan public audience and speaks right, alone, without gifts may come and then none of the Koran is the only valid Code. The government revenues from the tithe, the Jews taxes, customs duties and other taxes on 3 million Thlr. estimated and throw a significant surplus from which the treasure of the sultan flows. It usually consists of Army 15.000 M., half of whom are negroes, in the wars but will posses the militia and the army then grows at 100.000 M.; the sea is one of only a few Briggs and Kanonierschaluppen.



IX. Notes

(1)      Article: Morocco, classic Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, in Online Encyclopedia
(2)      Article: Morocco, Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907, in New Advent
(3)      Article: Morocco, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911, in 1911encyclopedia
(4)      Article: Marokko, BrockhausKonversationslexikon, 1837, in Zeno.org


X. Bibliography

Note: websites quoted below were visited from March to June, 2009.
1.      Article: Marokko, BrockhausKonversatinsLexikon, 1809, from Zeno.org http://www.zeno.org/Brockhaus-1809/A/Marokko
2.      Article: Marokko, BrockhausKonversationslexikon, 1837, from Zeno.org http://www.zeno.org/Brockhaus-1837/A/Marokko?hl=marokko
3.      Article: Marokko, BrockhausKonversationslexikon, 1911, from Zeno.org http://www.zeno.org/Brockhaus-1911/A/Marokko+%5B2%5D
4.      Article: Marokko, Pierer¡¯s Universal Lexikon, 1857, from Zeno.org http://www.zeno.org/Pierer-1857/A/Marokko?hl=marokko
5.      Article: Marokko, Herders Conversations Lexikon, 1854, from Zeno.org http://www.zeno.org/Herder-1854/A/Marokko?hl=marokko
6.      Article: Marokko, Roell :Encyclopedia of the railway system, 1912, from Zeno.org http://www.zeno.org/Roell-1912/A/Marokko
7.      Article: Marokko, Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1905, from Zeno.org http://www.zeno.org/Meyers-1905/A/Marokko+%5B3%5D?hl=marokko
8.      Article: Marokko (Sultanate), Brockhaus' Konversationslexikon?, 1894-1896, from Retrobib http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=131157
9.      Article: Tanger, Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885, From Retrobib http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=115522
10.      Article: Marrakech , Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885, From Retrobib http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=110973
11.      Article: Morocco, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911, from 1911encyclopedia http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Morocco
12.      Article: Morocco, classic Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, from Online Encyclopedia http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/MOL_MOS/MOROCCO.html
13.      Article: Morocco, Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907, from New Advent http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10574a.htm
14.      Article: Morocco, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1902 Encyclopedia, from Online Encyclopedia http://www.1902encyclopedia.com/M/MOR/morocco.html
15.      Article: Morocco, Jewish Encyclopedia, from Jewish Encyclopedia.com http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=801&letter=M&search=Morocco
16.      Article: Marokko (Geschichte), Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892, from Retrobib http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=110974---Meyers1885-1892
17.      Article: Marokko, Nordisk familjebok, 1912 columns 1039-1040, from Project Runeberg http://runeberg.org/nfbq/0550.html
18.      Article: Casablanca, classic Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, from Online Encyclopedia http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/CAR_CAU/CASABLANCA_Dar_el_Baida_the_whi.html
19.      Article: Slavery, , Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1902 Encyclopedia, from Online Encyclopedia http://www.1902encyclopedia.com/S/SLA/slavery-23.html
20.      Article: Fes, , Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885, from Retrobib http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=105610#Fes
21.      Article: Marokko (Staat und Stadt; Geschichte), Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885, from Retrobib http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=110973
22.      Article: Tanger , Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885, from Retrobib http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=115522

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