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Gubernia Volhynia
First posted on February 14th 2008, last revised on July 25th 2010

History and Administrative Division . The territory of the Government of Podolia was part of the Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania until 1793/1795. It was an administrative unit (government, gubernia) of the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution, following which it became part of Ukraine.
Podolia Gubernia probably was established in 1802-1803; it bordered on Bessarabia Gubernia and Kherson Gubernia in the south, on Kiev Gubernia in the east, on Volhynia Gubernia in the north and Galicia (Austria-Hungary) in the west. Podolia Gubernia was divided in 12 Uyezds : Balta, Bratslav, Gaissin, Yampol, Kamenets-Podolsk, Letichev, Litin, Mohilev, Novaya-Ushitsa, Olgupol, Proskurov, Vinnitsa.
The Zemstvo Constitution was introduced as late as 1911 (EOU : Zemstvo).

Population . In 1811 the population was 1,298,000, in 1840 1,515,700, in 1867 1,946,800, in 1885 2,364,900, in 1914 4,057,000 (Lahmeyer). The majority was Russian Orthodox, about 20 % Roman Catholic, Protestant or Jewish (Meyer). Ethnically, it was composed (in order of importance) by Ukrainians, Russians, Armenians, Germans, Romanians.

Economy . In 1884, 63.5 % of the area was farmland, 14.7 % forest, 17 % pastorage. Main agricultuiral products included grain, poptatoes, sugar beets, maize, lentals. Tobacco and wine were cultivated. Animal husbandry was of importance; Podolian oxen were famous. In 1884 there were 1616 factories with a combined workforce of 24,083 industrial workers. Main industries were beet sugar industry, distillery, grain mills, followed by textile industry, tobacco processing, brewery, leather processing (Meyer).

Culture . The Julian Calendar was reintroduced in 1800.

Historic Encyclopedias on Podolia Gubernia, 1857-1915

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current Article Podolia, from Wikipedia
Podole, from Eastern Borderlands of the II Polish Republic
Article Podolskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical Articles : Governments : Podolia, from EB 1911
Articles : Podolien, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Historical Dictionary EOU : Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Accounts of History Article Podolia : History, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Podolsk Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Podolia
Ethnography Languages of Ukraine, from Ethnologue
Religion Jewish History of Ukraine, by Daniel Romanowski
Article Ukrainian Orthodox Church, from Wikipedia
History, from Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
History of Regions Article Pale of Settlement, from Wikipedia; Pale of Settlement, from Jewish Virtual Library
Local History Articles Kamianets-Podilskyi : History, Balta, Vinnytsia : History, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Ukraine, Vinnytsia Oblast

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Ukraine, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections Russia - Belarus - Ukraine - Uzbekistan Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Historical Maps Government Podolia etc. 1882, from FEEFHS (Blackie & Sons 1882)
Podolia Map, by Seth Orloff
Map of Podolia Gubernia, no date, from Wikimedia, in Russian
Map : Royaume du Pologne, (shows Podolia Gubernia; Heck, Atlas Geographique et Historique 1835), posted by M. Witkam
Maps : W Podolia, E Podolia, (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Podolien, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German
Article : Podolien, from Wander, Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon 1867-1880, in German
Articles Podolien, Balta, Brazlaw, Gajssin, Jampol, Kamenez-Podolsk, Mohilew, Letitschew, Litin, Nowaja Uschiza, Proskurow, Winnitza, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Podolien (Gov.), from Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1902-1908, in German
Articles : Governments : Podolia, Cities : Mogilev on the Dniester, Proskurov, Balta, Kamenets Podolskiy, from EB 1911
Religious Articles Podolia, Balta, Bratzlav, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Vinnitsa, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Article Lutzk, Zhitomir and Kamenetz, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1908 edition
Geographical Das Gouvernement Podolien, pp.499-502 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Das Gouvernement Podolien, pp.277-279 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Podolia p.33
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Archives of Ukraine
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Podolye Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Podolia EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and Eastern European Studies), search for Podolia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific Electronic Library of Ukrainian Literature
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary Kohut, Zenon E., Historical Dictionary of Ukraine, Rowman & Littlefield 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.7 K79h

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