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Literature on the History of East Africa
First posted on September 26th 2007, last revised on November 12th 2013

History of German East Africa : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

For the country's earlier history, see Tanganyika before 1815 , Tanganyika 1815-1886 , History of the Swahili Coast
For the country's later history, see Tanganyika 1920-1964, Tanzania, since 1964

German East Africa, 1885-1916/19
Tanganyika as a geographical and political entity did not take shape before the period of High Imperialism; its name only came into use after the bulk of German East Africa was transferred to Britain as a mandate by the League of Nations in 1920. What is referred to here therefore is the history of the region that was to become Tanganyika.

German Carl Peters had secured treaties with tribal leaders on East Africa's coast, providing the German government with legitimation to negotiate with Britain over spheres of interest in East Africa. In the treaty of 1886, Germany renounced its claims on the Witu Area (on Kenya's coast, north of Mombasa) and on Uganda, and Britain recognized Germany's claim to what was to become German East Africa. In another treaty of 1890, Germany accepted the British claim to the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba for Britain ceding the much smaller island of Heligoland, off Germany's coast in the North Sea. The Germans bought off the Sultan of Zanzibar's rights to the Tanganyikan coast for USD 800,000.
The German East Africa Company (founded 1887, succeeded by the German government in 1891) established Bagamoyo as their colony's capital, soon moving it to Daressalaam. The colony was called Deutsch-Ostafrika (German East Africa). The colony's borders had been established in treaties with Britain (British East Africa (consisting of Kenya, Uganda) and Northern Rhodesia), with the Congo Free State (since 1908 Belgian Congo) and Portugal (Moçambique); interests of the indigenous people were disregarded. From the coast, the Germans penetrated the country and established their rule. The currency was 1 Rupia = 64 Pesa.
The Germans established an infrastructure - roads, railway lines, hospitals, schools (Swahili being the language of education). Slavery was effectively suppressed, and a plantation economy introduced, based on sisal, cotton and rubber, coffee, sesame, copra, peanuts. In 1905, a new currency was introduced, 1 Rupia = 100 Heller.
The establishment of German rule did not occur without African resistance : the Abushiri-Rising in the Bagamoyo region had to be overcome in 1889-1891, the Hehe-Rising in the central region in 1891-1898, the large-scale Maji Maji-Rising in the south in 1905-1907.
By developing the country's infrastructure and by establishing a new capital at Daressalaam, the traditional Arab and Islamic dominance of the coastal region was greatly diminished. Christian missionaries, both protestant and catholic, entered the country, establishing christian communities. The introduction of Swahili as the language of administration and education also favoured the spread of Islam.
When World War I broke out in 1914, German East Africa was the only German colony not to fall to enemy forces within a matter of months. The island of Mafia was occupied by the British Navy in 1914; German military commander, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck was able to hold the colony's northern border to Kenya until 1916. When British and South African forces finally managed to penetrate the German lines, von Lettow-Vorbeck switched to a guerilla strategy. He reinforced his troops by conscripting native soldiers, the so-called Askaris. Constantly on the move and partially operating in British Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese Moçambique, he held out until the end of the war, tying enemy forces up in Africa which thus could not be employed on the European front.
In the Treaty of Versailles 1919, Germany had to cede all her colonies. The League of Nations in 1920 awarded the bulk of German East Africa, to be called Tanganyika, as a mandate to Britain, Ruanda-Urundi to Belgium and the southeastern coastal city of Kionga to Portugal (Moçambique).

Historical atlas, Tanzania Page .. Zanzibar Page .. British East Africa Page

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern Ostafrika, from Deutsche Schutzgebiete , in English
Article German East Africa, from Wikipedia
H. Schumacher, Deutsch-Ostafrika : Geographie und Geschichte, in German [text from Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon 1920 pp.357-407]
Historical Deutsch-Ostafrika, from Jaduland, from Ritter, Länder- und Völkerkunde 1904, in German, detailed population statistics etc.
Deutsch-Ostafrika by A. Teue, from Jaduland, Text from 1887 in German
Comite de l'Afrique française, Les Colonies allemandes d'Afrique d'après les rapports consulaires anglais 1916, Gallica
Links General see under Tanzania
on History German Language Links on German Colonial History from Deutsche Kolonialgeschichte im Internet
Virtual Library History : Tanzania
Category : History of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries Deutsches Kolonial Lexikon 1920, click Recherche, O, Ostafrika; has numerous other articles on the colony; site in German
East Africa Living Encyclopedia
Organizations Berliner Gesellschaft für Missionsgeschichte
Timelines see under Tanzania
Accounts of History Current The History of Tanzania : Colonial Period, from United Republic of Tanzania
Deutsch-Ostafrika 1885-1890 : Auf dem Weg vom Schutzbriefsystem zur Reichskolonialverwaltung. Ein Beitrag zur Verfassungsgeschichte der Deutschen Kolonien, by Klaus Richter German East Africa 1885-1890 : from the system of protection promising treaties to German colonial administration. A contribution to the constitutional history of German colonies.
Deutsch-Ostafrika : Referat über die Deutsche Kolonialpolitik am Beispiel Deutsch Ostafrikas, high school student assignment, in German
Specific Periods
Military The German East Africa Campaign 1914-1918, from South African Military History Society
Die grossen Aufstände in Deutsch-Südwestafrika und Deutsch-Ostafrika 1904-1907, by Hauke Haien (in German, scholarly essay)
Map : Maji-Maji Rebellion in German East Africa 1905-1906, from Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century by Matthew White
Konigsberg, A German East African Raider, by Kevin Patience (Königsberg misspelled)
Blockading German East Africa 1915-1916, from Semaphore
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Maji-Maji Revolt 1905-1907
A Machine-Gunner's Odyssey through German East Africa : The Diary of E.S. Thompson, Pt.1, Jan. - Feb. 1916, Pt.2.1, Jan. - May 1916, Pt.2.2, May - Sept. 1916, Pt.3, Sept. 1916 - Feb. 1917, from South African Military History Society
W.D. Downes, With the Nigerians in German East Africa 1919, IA
German Colonial Uniforms : German East Africa (narrative of military history)
G. Byern, Die da drüben ... : ostafrikanische Kriegsskizzen 1917, DDB
G. Gürich, Während des Krieges in Deutsch-Ostafrika und Südafrika : meine Erlebnisse bei Ausbruch des Krieges in Deutsch-Ostafrika, im englischen Gefangenenlager in Südafrika und auf der Rückreise nach Europa 1916, DDB
Great Britain, War Office, Reports on the treatment by the Germans of British prisoners and natives in German East Africa, n.d. (WW I)
F.B. Young, Marching on Tanga : (with General Smuts in East Africa) 1917, IA
H. von Wissmann, Kriegsbilder aus dem Araberaufstand in Deutsch-Ostafrika 1891, Open Library
M. Gabriel, German Counterinsurgency Operations in East Africa: The Hehe War, 1890-1898, Small Wars Journal 2012
Economy & Finances see under Tanzania
Article German East Africa Company, from Wikipedia
German East Africa Line / Woermann Line, from The Ships List
Deutsche Zollgeschichte : Kolonien, from Deutsche Zollgeschichte, postcards, mostly featuring customs houses in Deutsch-Ostafrika, comment in German
H. Brode, British and German East Africa, their economic and commercial relations 1911, IA
F. Scholz, Das Kolonialgeld Deutsch-Ostafrikas 2008
H. Paasche, Deutsch-Ostafrika. Wirtschaftliche Studien 2nd ed. 1913, Library Univ. Toronto
NTZ, Sisal
CoffeeWiki, Coffee Industry of Tanzania
Tanzania Chamber of Mining and Energy, History of the Mining Sector
Social History see under Tanzania
The "End" of the African Slave Trade: The Case of East Africa, posted by Mark Gilbert (World History Connected)
S. Utermark, "Schwarzer Untertan versus schwarzer Bruder". Bernhard Dernburgs Reformen in den Kolonien Deutsch-Ostafrika, Deutsch-Südwestafrika, Togo und Kamerun, thesis Kassel 2012
E.A. Ricketts, Women's Access to Secondary Education in Colonial and Postcolonial Tanzania and Rwanda, thesis Chicago 2013
A.M. Lutambi, (The Impact Missionaries had on Education in Tanzania, Past and Present)
S.J. Rockel, Caravan Porters of the Nyika. Labour, Culture and Society in 19th Century Tanzania thesis Tortonto 1997
F. Weston (Anglican Bishop of Zanzibar), The Black Slaves of Prussia 1918, Project Canterbury
Ethnography Languages of Tanzania (143), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Tanzania, from Wikipedia
Art and Life in Africa : Tanzania
Article : Maasai People, from Wikipedia
Peachtree Publishers, Brief History of the Maasai
Article : Nyamwezi People, from Wikipedia
Distribution of African Languages, map from Muturzikin
Religion see under Tanzania
M. Hamilton, Mission im kolonialen Umfeld : Deutsche protestantische Missionsgesellschaften in Deutsch-Ostafrika, 2010
J.T. Hamilton, Twenty years of pioneer missions in Nyasaland : a history of Moravian missions in German East Africa 1912, IA
by Region J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Schutzgebiet Deutsch-Ostafrika 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08; Kingdom of Urundi 1900-07-08, Military Residency of the Kingdom of Urundi 1908-07-08, Residency of Urundi 1918-07-08, Kingdom of Ruanda 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08

A. Vetter, Die Ergebnisse der neueren Untersuchungen über die Geographie von Ruanda 1906, IA
E. Lime, Rwanda : German Colonization
History of Cities List of Cities in Tanzania, from Wikipedia
History of Bagamoyo, of Dar es Salam, Tanga, Ujiji, Dodoma, from Wikipedia
Boma's - Deutsche Stationen im ehemaligen Deutsch-Ostafrika
Institutions Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Südbahn, pp.102-108; Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Zentralbahn pp.109-129; Die Usambarabahn pp.130-140
Wilhelm von Puttkamer, Der gegenwärtige Stand der Eisenbahnbauten in unseren Kolonien,from : Süssenrotters Illustrierter Kolonial-Kalender 1912, posted on the web by Rado Jadu
Die Häfen unserer Ostafrikanischen Kolonie, from Jaduland, by Peter Wendling / Suesserott's Kolonial-Kalender 1912, in German (the ports of our East African Colony)
Biographies Image of Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, from 2000 Jahre Chronik
A. Perras, Carl Peters and German Imperialism 1856-1918, a Political Biography Oxford UP 2004
Environmental History
Others The so-called Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty of 1890, from Deutsche Schutzgebiete
Past, Present and Future (files on Tanzanian history during German colonial rule) posted by Dr. Kudrati
The Press of German East Africa 1890-1916, by Martin Sturmer
R.D. Baldus, Wildlife Conservation in Tanganyika under German Colonial Rule
M.A. Yokell, The Treaty of Helgoland-Zanzibar : The Beginning of the End of Anglo-German Friendship ?, thesis Richmond 2010
J. Voss, Deutsch-Ostafrika - Tanganyika - Tanzania : Agents and Interactions in the Management of Forest Resources, 1891-2000 n.d.

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon; does list German East Africa 1885-1918 without separate title, under Tanzania), from Rulers (B. Schemmel, does list German East Africa 1885-1918, without separate title, under Tanzania), Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Africa, scroll down for Kilwa
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer), data on Tanzania
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Universität Frankfurt, Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Zeitung 1899-1916; also at Die digitale Bibliothek, in German
Deutsches Kolonialblatt 1890, 1891, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, IA; 1918, Univ. Frankfurt
Online Yearbooks - German East Africa Entries Statesman's Year-Book, German East Africa 1890, pp.509-510, IA, 1891, pp.559-560, IA, 1892, pp.568-569, IA, 1894, pp.568-569, IA, 1895, pp.570-571, IA, 1896, pp.570-571, IA, 1898, pp.568-569, IA, 1899, pp.613-614, IA, 1903, pp.684-685, IA, 1913, pp.893-895, IA, Germany, Former German East Africa 1919, pp.916-917, IA, 1921, pp.699-705, IA
The War in East Africa, from South and East African Year Book and Guide, 26th ed. 1920
Former German East Africa, from South and East African Year Book and Guide, 26th ed. 1920, dates until 1913
Staatskalender Deutscher Kolonialatlas mit Jahrbuch (German Colonial Atlas with Yearbook), Deutsch-Ostafrika section, in English translation 1905 pp.15-18, 1906 pp.15-18, 1907 pp.17-20, 1908 pp.16-19, 1909 pp.22-26, 1910 pp.22-27, 1913 pp.27-32, 1914 pp.30-36, 1918 pp.20-25, posted on psm-data
Image Databanks Der Bildbestand der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft in der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main
Bundesarchiv, The Digital Picture Archives, Berlin
Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
Systematic Collections
German Colonial Uniforms : Scroll down for German East Africa
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on German East Africa
Archival Deposits Endangered Archives Programme, EAP099: records of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania in Moshi, Tanzania
Adam Matthews Publications, Church Missionary Society Archive, Section IV : Africa, Part 19: Tanganyika, 1900-1934, Nyanza, 1880-1886, and Rwanda, 1933-1934
Historiography Africanus (M.C. Cariston), The Prussian Lash in Africa: The Story of German Rule in Africa 1918, IA
Document Surveys
Document Collections Documents on Germany's Colonies - web editions and links, posted by psm-data, scroll down for German East Africa
Beim Gouverneur von Deutsch-Ostafrika - Daressalam, from Jaduland, from Die Woche 1900, in German
Die Gründung von Deutsch-Ostafrika (the foundation of DOA), by Carl Peters, from Jaduland, from his memoires published in 1918, in German
Individual Documents Great Britain.Government Committee on Treatment by the Enemy of British Prisoners of War, British civilian prisoners in German East Africa, n.d. (WW I)
Historical Maps collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Tanzania Tanzania Maps, from Maps of the World
Tanzania Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old maps of Tanzania, Maps of the history of Tanzania, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Tanzania
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Distribution of African Languages, map from Muturzikin
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
German East Africa, Modern
German East Africa, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 41. Tabora 1885, 41. Tabora 1892, 42. Zanzibar 1885, 42. Zanzibar 1892, 45. Livingstonia 1885, 45. Livingstonia 1888, 45. Livingstonia 1893, 46. Kiloua 1885, 46. Kiloua 1889 46. Kiloua 1893, Gallica
Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft, Übersichtskarte von Deutsch Ostafrika 1896, Library Univ. of Illinois
Map of 1897, from Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 5. edition , posted at this site
Deutsch-Ostafrika 1912, 1919, Deutsche Schutzgebiete
Völkerkarte Deutsch-Ostafrika, n.d., Deutsch-Ostafrika, Regenverteilung n.d. (precipitation), GeoGreif
Deutsch-Ostafrika : Eisenbahnen, Bildarchiv der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft, Univ. Frankfurt
Verwaltungs- und Verkehrskarte Deutsch-Ostafrika 1:6.000.000, GeoGreif
Vegetationskarte Deutsch-Ostafrika 1:6.000.000, GeoGreif
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Bundesarchiv : Station Kilossa, Deutsch-Ostafrika
Map Daressalam 1875, GeoGreif
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles German East Africa, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanga, Kilwa, Ujiji, from EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Deutsch-Ostafrika, Tanga, Saadani, Pangani, Usambara; scroll down for Usaramo, Udschidschi, Ruanda, Urundi, Dar es Salam, Lindi, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Economic German East Africa pp.323-324 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnographical E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Zanzibar : the German annexations pp.301-326
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; German East Africa pp.301-326
Parliamentary Debates Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags, 1867-1895, 1895-1918, 1918-1942, in German
Documents on Deutsch-Ostafrika in Protokolle des Reichstags, facsimiles posted by Bayrische Staatsbibliothek :
(1) Agreement achieved by the exchange of notes between Great Britain and Germany on Oct. 29th and Nov. 11th 1886, regarding the Sultanate of Zanzibar and the delimitation of the British and German spheres of interest in East Africa, click : 1871-1895, click : 1884-1887, click : Band.104 Anlagen 1-56, click : Anlagen Nr.54-56. all 4 pages (pp.367-370) contain the text, both in English and German
(2) Denkschrift über die Deutschen Schutzgebiete (Memorandum concerning the German protectorates), 1885, click : 1871-1894, click : 1884-1887, click : Band 98 Anlagen 1-112, click : Anlagen 43-44, pp.134-137 and Anlagen 45 p.138 contain the text, in German, Gothic font; on the Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft pp.135-136, on Wituland pp.137-138
(3) Denkschrift betreffend Deutsch-Ostafrika (Memorandum concerning German East Africa), Nov. 17th 1893, click : 1871-1895, click : 1893-1895, click : Band 156 Anlagen 1-117, click : Anlage 48, pp.328-344
(4) Denkschrift betreffend das Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Schutzgebiet (Memorandum concerning the German-East African protectorate), Dec. 20th 1894, click : 1871-1895, click : 1893-1895, click : Band 162 Anlagen 1-171, click : Anlage 89, pp.381-416, text in German, Gothic font
(14) Aufstand in Ostafrika, Berichte (Rebellion in East Africa, reports), 1890, click : 1871-1895, click 1890-1893, click Band 138 : 1890/1891, Anlagen 193-381, click : Anlage 240, pp.1814-1839
(15) Entwurf eines Gesetzes betreffend Bekämpfung des Sklavenhandels und Schutz der Deutschen Interessen in Ostafrika (Draft of a law respective the combat against slavery and the protection of German interests in East Africa), click : 1871-1895, click 1887-1890, click Band 121 : 1888/1889 Anlagen 1-102, click : Anlage 71, pp.491-492
(16) Aktenstücke betreffend Abmachungen des Reichs mit Frankreich, Grossbritannien sowie der Deutsch-Ostafrikanischen Gesellschaft zur Regelung der Verhältnisse in Ostafrika (Documents concerning agreements between the Reich and France, Great Britain as well as the Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft respective the conditions in East Africa), click : 1871-1895, click : 1890-1893, click : Band 137, 1890/1891, Anlagen 141-192, click : Anlage 166, pp.1209-1222; pp.1210-1215 German-British agreements of 1890, in German and English; p.1216 German-French agreement, in German and French
(17) Entwurf eines Gesetzes betreffend die Kaiserliche Schutztruppe fuer Deutsch-Ostafrika (Draft of a law concerning the Imperial Schutztruppe for Deutsch-Ostafrika), click : 1871-1895, click : 1890-1893, click : Band 149, 1892/1893, Anlagen 101-232, click Anlage 220, 221, 223, pp.
(18) Erste Beratung des Entwurfs eines Gesetzes betreffend die Kaiserliche Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika (First debate of a draft of a law concerning the Imperial Schutztruppe in Deutsch-Ostafrika), click : 1871-1895, click : 1890-1893, click : Band 130, click : 57. Sitzung, pp.1314-1319 (p.1319 under 58. Sitzung), debate held February 4th 1891
(19) Erste Beratung des Entwurfs eines Gesetzes betreffend die Kaiserliche Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika (First debate of a draft of a law concerning the Imperial Schutztruppe in Deutsch-Ostafrika), click : 1871-1895, click : 1890-1893, click : Band 130, click : 58. Sitzung, pp.1322-1345 (p.1345 under 59. Sitzung), debate held February 5th 1891
(20) Erste Beratung des Entwurfs eines Gesetzes betreffend die Kaiserliche Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika (First debate of a draft of a law concerning the Imperial Schutztruppe in Deutsch-Ostafrika), click : 1871-1895, click : 1890-1893, click : Band 130, click : 59. Sitzung, pp.1347-1364 (p.1364 under 60. Sitzung), debate held February 6th 1891
(21) Zweite Beratung des Entwurfs eines Gesetzes betreffend die Kaiserliche Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika (Second debate of a draft of a law concerning the Imperial Schutztruppe in Deutsch-Ostafrika), click : 1871-1895, click : 1890-1893, click : Band 131, click : 85. Sitzung, pp.1970-1972, debate held March 10th 1891
(22) Dritte Beratung des Entwurfs eines Gesetzes betreffend die Kaiserliche Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika (Third debate of a draft of a law concerning the Imperial Schutztruppe in Deutsch-Ostafrika), click : 1871-1895, click : 1890-1893, click : Band 131, click : 91. Sitzung, pp.2123-2124, debate held March 17th 1891
Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues J.L. Krapf, Reisen in Ost-Afrika : ausgeführt in den Jahren 1837-55 ; zur Beförderung er Ostafrikanischen Erd- und Missionskunde. vol.1, vol.2 1858, DDB
T. von Heuglin, Die Deutsche Expedition in Ost-Afrika 1861 und 1862 1864, DDB
O. Kersten, Reisen in Ost-Afrika in den Jahren 1859 bis 1865 vol.1, vol.3.1 1865 (expedition von der Decken), DDB
B. Hassenstein et al., Die mittleren Hochländer des nördlichen Deutsch-Ost-Afrika : wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Irangi-Expedition 1896 - 1897 nebst kurzer Reisebeschreibung 1898, DDB
A Machine-Gunner's Odyssey through German East Africa : The Diary of E.S. Thompson, Pt.1, Jan. - Feb. 1916, Pt.2.1, Jan. - May 1916, Pt.2.2, May - Sept. 1916, Pt.3, Sept. 1916 - Feb. 1917, from South African Military History Society
Der Süden des Schutzgebietes, from Jaduland from Emil Zimmermann, Unsere Kolonien, 1911, in German (the south of our protectorate)
A.F. Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Africa-Expedition, 1907-1908 vol.2 1914, vol.3 1912, vol.4 1913, vol.5 1921, vol.7 1911, IA
A.F. Herzog von Mecklenburg, Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse der zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Africa-Expedition, 1910-1911, vol.1.1 1917, vol.2 1922, IA
Institutions Archives The United Republic of Tanzania, Records and Archives Management Division
Bundesarchiv, search for "Ostafrika"
Archiv der Berliner Gesellschaft für Missionsgeschichte
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes from German East Africa, from ATS Catalog of World Paper Money and from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Deutsche Schutzgebiete, comment in German; from Currency Museum
Coin Catalog of German East Africa, from Numismaticon; German East Africa Coins and Notes, von Lettow Vorbeck collectables, from Token Coins; German East Africa, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
F. Scholz, Das Kolonialgeld Deutsch-Ostafrika (2008)
Münzkatalog Online, Deutsch-Ostafrika

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on German East Africa survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database U. Holtz, Ehemalige deutsche Kolonien. Vom Kolonialstatus zum wirtschaftlichen Partnerland Deutschlands ?, Bibliographie/Webliographie 2003
D. Köster, Bibliographie zur deutschen Kolonialgeschichte, Colonial Voyage
general bibliographies Tanzania-Network : Literaturhinweise
specialist bibliographies Berliner Gesellschaft für Missionsgeschichte : Bibliographie
Maji Maji Bibliography Project
Wissmann-Bibliographie, from Afrika Hamburg
serial publications Verlag Christoph Links : Studien zur Kolonialgeschichte, Schlaglichter der Kolonialgeschichte
booksellers Namibiana Buchdepot : Kolonialgeschichte von Ostafrika
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica; Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
International Boundary Studies
on German East Africa Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlungen, click : Kolonialbibliothek
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Tanzania
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts On German Colonies Rochus Schmidt, Deutschlands Kolonien, Berlin : Schall & Grund 1898 (Reprint 1898) (Germany's Colonies) [G]
P. Sprigade, M. Moisel, Grosser Deutscher Kolonialatlas, Berlin : Dietrich Reimer 1901-1915 (Large German Colonial Atlas) Reprint Braunschweig : Archiv Verlag 2002 [G]
On German East Africa John Iliffe, A Modern History of Tanganyika, Cambridge UP (1979) 1987 [G]
Edna Mason Kaula, The Land and People of Tanganyika, Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott 1963 [G]
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.17, pp.803-810 Article Eastern Africa : Tanzania. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.17
Specific Topics Joachim Gf. von Pfeil, Die Erwerbung von Deutsch-Ostafrika, Berlin : Karl Curtius, n.d. (The Acquisition of German East Africa) [G]
Franz Wehling, Die Entwicklung der Deutsch-Ostafrikanischen Rupie, Münster : Aschendorff 1929 (The Development of the German East African Rupia) [G]
Abdallah bin Hemedi'l Ajjemy, The Kilindi, Nairobi : East African Literature Bureau 1963 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Laura S. Kurtz, Historical Dictionary of Tanzania, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year German East Africa, 1913 p.1012 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook German East Africa, 1895 pp.570-571, 1898 pp.568-569, 1901 pp.654-655, 1905 pp.725-727, 1910 pp.861-862 [G]
(New) International Yearbook German East Africa, 1898 pp.276-277 [G]
Other East Africa - German East Africa, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 p.248 [G]

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